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Heat and Mass Transfer and Air-Water Mixtures

2011-07-25
CURRENT
AIR1168/2A
Heat transfer is the transport of thermal energy from one point to another. Heat is transferred only under the influence of a temperature gradient or temperature difference. The direction of heat transfer is always from the point at the higher temperature to the point at the lower temperature, in accordance with the second law of thermodynamics. The fundamental modes of heat transfer are conduction, convection, and radiation. Conduction is the net transfer of energy within a fluid or solid occurring by the collisions of molecules, atoms, or electrons. Convection is the transfer of energy resulting from fluid motion. Convection involves the processes of conduction, fluid motion, and mass transfer. Radiation is the transfer of energy from one point to another in the absence of a transporting medium. In practical applications several modes of heat transfer occur simultaneously.
Standard

COOLING OF MODERN AIRBORNE ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT

1976-05-01
HISTORICAL
AIR1277
This document contains information on the cooling of modern airborne electronics, emphasizing the use of a heat exchange surface which separates coolant and component. It supplements the information contained in AIR 64 for the draw through method and in AIR 728 for high Mach Number aircraft. Report contents include basic methods, characteristics of coolants, application inside and outside of the "black box" use of thermostatic controls to improve reliability and system design. Characteristics of typical cooling components are treated sufficiently to permit selection and to estimate size and weight. While emphasis is placed herein on equipment cooling, section 9 dealing with thermal control of the environment, reminds the reader that some equipment will require heating for start up from a cold condition or as a means to control temperature within narrow limits (e.g. in a crystal oven). Property data and constants are also tabulated.
Standard

Aircraft Humidification

2016-10-21
WIP
AIR1609B
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) covers the design parameters for various methods of humidification applicable to aircraft, the physiological aspects of low humidities, the possible benefits of controlling cabin humidity, the penalties associated with humidification, and the problems which must be solved for practical aircraft humidification systems. The design information is applicable to commercial and military aircraft. The physiological aspects cover all aircraft environmental control applications.
Standard

AIRCRAFT HUMIDIFICATION

1982-04-30
HISTORICAL
AIR1609
This report covers the design parameters for various methods of humidification applicable to aircraft, the physiological aspects of low humidities, the possible benefits of controlling cabin humidity, the penalties associated with humidification, and the problems which must be solved for practical aircraft humidification systems. The design information is applicable to commercial and military aircraft. The physiological aspects cover all aircraft environmental control applications.
Standard

Aircraft Humidification

2005-03-21
CURRENT
AIR1609A
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) covers the design parameters for various methods of humidification applicable to aircraft, the physiological aspects of low humidities, the possible benefits of controlling cabin humidity, the penalties associated with humidification, and the problems which must be solved for practical aircraft humidification systems. The design information is applicable to commercial and military aircraft. The physiological aspects cover all aircraft environmental control applications.
Standard

NBC Protection Considerations for ECS Design

2014-07-01
CURRENT
AIR4362A
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) provides Nuclear, Biological and Chemical (NBC) protection considerations for environmental control system (ECS) design. It is intended to familiarize the ECS designer with the subject in order to know what information will be required to do an ECS design where NBC protection is a requirement. This is not intended to be a thorough discussion of NBC protection. Such a document would be large and would be classified. Topics of NBC protection that are more pertinent to the ECS designer are discussed in more detail. Those of peripheral interest, but of which the ECS designer should be aware are briefly discussed. Only radiological aspects of nuclear blast are discussed. The term CBR (Chemical, Biological, and Radiological) has been used to contrast with NBC to indicate that only the radiological aspects of a nuclear blast are being discussed.
Standard

NBC Protection Considerations for ECS Design

2008-08-19
HISTORICAL
AIR4362
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) provides Nuclear, Biological and Chemical (NBC) protection considerations for environmental control system (ECS) design. It is intended to familiarize the ECS designer with the subject in order to know what information will be required to do an ECS design where NBC protection is a requirement. This is not intended to be a thorough discussion of NBC protection. Such a document would be large and would be classified. Topics of NBC protection that are more pertinent to the ECS designer are discussed in more detail. Those of peripheral interest, but of which the ECS designer should be aware are briefly discussed. Only radiological aspects of nuclear blast are discussed. The term CBR (Chemical, Biological, and Radiological) has been used to contrast with NBC to indicate that only the radiological aspects of a nuclear blast are being discussed.
Standard

Air Quality for Commercial Aircraft Cabin Particulate Contaminants

2018-10-17
WIP
AIR4766/1A
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) covers airbone particulate contaminants that may be present in commercial aircraft cabin air during operation. Discussions cover sources of contaminants, methods of control and design recommendations. Air quality, ventilation requirements and standards are also discussed.
Standard

Airborne Chemicals in Aircraft Cabins

2005-02-09
CURRENT
AIR4766/2
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) provides information on aircraft cabin air quality, including: Airborne contaminant gases, vapors, and aerosols. Identified potential sources. Comfort, health and safety issues. Airborne chemical measurement. Regulations and standards. Operating conditions and equipment that may cause aircraft cabin contamination by airborne chemicals (including Failure Conditions and normal Commercial Practices). Airborne chemical control systems. It does not deal with airflow requirements.
Standard

Liquid Cooling Systems

2016-09-10
WIP
AIR1811B
The purpose of this Aerospace Information Report (AIR) is to provide guidelines for the selection and design of airborne liquid cooling systems. This publication is applicable to liquid cooling systems of the closed loop type and the expendable coolant type in which the primary function is transporting of heat from its source to a heat sink. Most liquid cooling system applications are oriented toward the cooling of electronics. Liquid cooling techniques, heat sinks, design features, selection of coolants, corrosion control, and servicing requirements for these systems are presented. Information on vapor compression refrigeration systems, which are a type of cooling system, is found in Reference 1.
Standard

Spacecraft Life Support Systems

1994-01-01
HISTORICAL
AIR1168/14
A life support system (LSS) is usually defined as a system that provides elements necessary for maintaining human life and health in the state required for performing a prescribed mission. The LSS, depending upon specific design requirements, will provide pressure, temperature, and composition of local atmosphere, food, and water. It may or may not collect, dispose, or reprocess wastes such as carbon dioxide, water vapor, urine, and feces. It can be seen from the preceding definition that LSS requirements may differ widely, depending on the mission specified, such as operation in Earth orbit or lunar mission. In all cases the time of operation is an important design factor. An LSS is sometimes briefly defined as a system providing atmospheric control and water, waste, and thermal management.
Standard

Spacecraft Life Support Systems

2012-10-15
CURRENT
AIR1168/14A
A life support system (LSS) is usually defined as a system that provides elements necessary for maintaining human life and health in the state required for performing a prescribed mission. The LSS, depending upon specific design requirements, will provide pressure, temperature, and composition of local atmosphere, food, and water. It may or may not collect, dispose, or reprocess wastes such as carbon dioxide, water vapor, urine, and feces. It can be seen from the preceding definition that LSS requirements may differ widely, depending on the mission specified, such as operation in Earth orbit or lunar mission. In all cases the time of operation is an important design factor. An LSS is sometimes briefly defined as a system providing atmospheric control and water, waste, and thermal management.
Standard

Heat and Mass Transfer and Air-Water Mixtures

2001-08-01
HISTORICAL
AIR1168/2
Heat transfer is the transport of thermal energy from one point to another. Heat is transferred only under the influence of a temperature gradient or temperature difference. The direction of heat transfer is always from the point at the higher temperature to the point at the lower temperature, in accordance with the second law of thermodynamics. The fundamental modes of heat transfer are conduction, convection, and radiation. Conduction is the net transfer of energy within a fluid or solid occurring by the collisions of molecules, atoms, or electrons. Convection is the transfer of energy resulting from fluid motion. Convection involves the processes of conduction, fluid motion, and mass transfer. Radiation is the transfer of energy from one point to another in the absence of a transporting medium. In practical applications several modes of heat transfer occur simultaneously.
Standard

Spacecraft Equipment Environmental Control

2011-07-25
CURRENT
AIR1168/13A
This part of the manual presents methods for arriving at a solution to the problem of spacecraft inflight equipment environmental control. The temperature aspect of this problem may be defined as the maintenance of a proper balance and integration of the following thermal loads: equipment-generated, personnel-generated, and transmission through external boundary. Achievement of such a thermal energy balance involves the investigation of three specific areas: 1 Establishment of design requirements. 2 Evaluation of properties of materials. 3 Development of analytical approach. The solution to the problem of vehicle and/or equipment pressurization, which is the second half of major environmental control functions, is also treated in this section. Pressurization in this case may be defined as the task associated with the storage and control of a pressurizing fluid, leakage control, and repressurization.
Standard

The Control of Excess Humidity in Avionics Cooling

2010-06-17
CURRENT
ARP987B
This Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) outlines the causes and impacts of moisture and/or condensation in avionics equipment and provides recommendations for corrective and preventative action.
Standard

AIR CONDITIONING OF SUBSONIC AIRCRAFT AT HIGH ALTITUDE

1984-03-01
CURRENT
AIR795A
This report is limited to the special problems of air quantity, purity, movement, pressure, temperature, and humidity which arise from the requirements of the human body during high altitude flight, together with the associated aircraft design problems.
Standard

HEAT TRANSFER PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH AEROSPACE VEHICLES

1978-04-01
CURRENT
AIR732
The discipline of heat transfer concerns itself basically with the three modes of transferring thermal energy (convection, conduction, and radiation) and their inter-relations. In any phase of aerospace vehicle design, the importance of any of these basic modes will vary depending upon the natural and induced environment the mission imposes as well as the vehicle configuration.
Standard

AIR CONDITIONING, HELICOPTER, GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR

1970-10-26
HISTORICAL
ARP292B
These recommendations are written to cover the general requirements of helicopter air conditioning and are sub-divided as follows: (1) Air Conditioning System - Dealing with the general design aspects. (2) Air Conditioning Equipment - Design requirements for satisfactory system function and performance. (3) Air Conditioning System Design Requirements -General information for use of those concerned in meeting requirements contained herein.
Standard

Aircraft Cabin Pressurization Criteria

2017-04-10
WIP
ARP1270C
This ARP covers the basic criteria for the design of cabin pressure control systems (CPCS) for general aviation, commercial and military pressurized aircraft.
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