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Standard

Engine Bleed Air Systems for Aircraft

1987-02-01
HISTORICAL
ARP1796
This ARP discusses design philosophy, system and equipment requirements, installation environment and design considerations for systems within the ATA 100 specification, Chapter 36, Pneumatic (reference 1). This ATA system/chapter covers equipment used to deliver compressed air from a power source to connecting points for other systems such as air conditioning, pressurization, anti-icing, cross-engine starting, air turbine motors, air driven hydraulic pumps, and other pneumatic demands. The engine bleed air system includes components for preconditioning the compressed air (temperature, pressure or flow regulation), ducting to distribute high or low pressure air to the using systems, and sensors/instruments to indicate temperature and pressure levels within the system. The engine bleed air system interfaces with the following ATA 100 systems: The interface with these systems/chapters is at the inlet of the shutoff/control valve of each associated system.
Standard

Engine Bleed Air Systems for Aircraft

2015-07-13
CURRENT
ARP1796B
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) discusses design philosophy, system and equipment requirements, installation environment and design considerations for military and commercial aircraft systems within the Air Transport Association (ATA) ATA 100 specification, Chapter 36, Pneumatic. This ATA system/chapter covers equipment used to deliver compressed air from a power source to connecting points for other systems such as air conditioning, pressurization, ice protection, cross-engine starting, air turbine motors, air driven hydraulic pumps, on board oxygen generating systems (OBOGS), on board inert gas generating systems (OBIGGS), and other pneumatic demands. The engine bleed air system includes components for preconditioning the compressed air (temperature, pressure or flow regulation), ducting to distribute high or low pressure air to the using systems, and sensors/instruments to indicate temperature and pressure levels within the system.
Standard

Air Cycle Air Conditioning Systems for Military Air Vehicles

2013-08-06
HISTORICAL
AS4073A
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) defines the requirements for air cycle air conditioning systems used on military air vehicles for cooling, heating, ventilation, and moisture and contamination control. General recommendations for an air conditioning system, which may include an air cycle system as a cooling source, are included in MIL-E-18927E (AS) and JSSG-2009. Air cycle air conditioning systems include those components which condition high temperature and high pressure air for delivery to occupied and equipment compartments and to electrical and electronic equipment. This document is applicable to open and closed loop air cycle systems. Definitions are contained in Section 5 of this document.
Standard

Air Cycle Air Conditioning Systems for Military Air Vehicles

2000-03-01
HISTORICAL
AS4073
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) defines the requirements for air cycle air conditioning systems used on military air vehicles for cooling, heating, ventilation, and moisture and contamination control. General recommendations for an air conditioning system, which may include an air cycle system as a cooling source, are included in MIL-E-18927E (AS) and MIL-E-87145 (USAF). Air cycle air conditioning systems include those components which condition high temperature and high pressure air for delivery to occupied and equipment compartments and to electrical and electronic equipment. This document is applicable to open and closed loop air cycle systems. Definitions are contained in Section 5 of this document.
Standard

Air Cycle Air Conditioning Systems for Air Vehicles

2019-08-20
CURRENT
AS4073B
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) defines the requirements for air cycle air conditioning systems used on military air vehicles for cooling, heating, ventilation, and moisture and contamination control. General recommendations for an air conditioning system, which may include an air cycle system as a cooling source, are included in MIL-E-18927E and JSSG-2009. Air cycle air conditioning systems include those components which condition high temperature and high pressure air for delivery to occupied and equipment compartments and to electrical and electronic equipment. This document is applicable to open and closed loop air cycle systems. Definitions are contained in Section 5 of this document.
Standard

COOLING OF MODERN AIRBORNE ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT

1976-05-01
HISTORICAL
AIR1277
This document contains information on the cooling of modern airborne electronics, emphasizing the use of a heat exchange surface which separates coolant and component. It supplements the information contained in AIR 64 for the draw through method and in AIR 728 for high Mach Number aircraft. Report contents include basic methods, characteristics of coolants, application inside and outside of the "black box" use of thermostatic controls to improve reliability and system design. Characteristics of typical cooling components are treated sufficiently to permit selection and to estimate size and weight. While emphasis is placed herein on equipment cooling, section 9 dealing with thermal control of the environment, reminds the reader that some equipment will require heating for start up from a cold condition or as a means to control temperature within narrow limits (e.g. in a crystal oven). Property data and constants are also tabulated.
Standard

Fault Isolation in Environmental Control Systems of Commercial Transports

1993-11-01
CURRENT
AIR1266A
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) outlines concepts for the design and use of fault isolation equipment that have general application. The specific focus is on fault isolation of environmental control systems (ECS) in commercial transports. Presented are general fault isolation purposes, design principles, and demonstration of compliance criteria. These are followed by three design examples to aid in understanding the design principles. Future trends in built-in-test-equipment (BITE) design are discussed, some of which represent concepts already being implemented on new equipment.
Standard

FAULT ISOLATION IN ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL SYSTEMS OF COMMERCIAL TRANSPORTS

1977-08-01
HISTORICAL
AIR1266
This AIR outlines concepts for the design and use of fault isolation equipment that have general application. However, the specific concern applies only to use with Environmental Control Systems in commercial transports. In particular, automatic Built In Test Equipment (BITE) with manual initiation and software programs are covered as systems already in use.
Standard

THE ADVANCED ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL SYSTEM (AECS) COMPUTER PROGRAM FOR STEADY STATE ANALYSIS AND PRELIMINARY SYSTEM SIZING

1986-10-01
HISTORICAL
AIR1706A
Many different computer programs have been developed to determine performance capabilities of aircraft environmental control systems, and to calculate size and weight tradeoffs during preliminary design. Many of these computer programs are limited in scope to a particular arrangement of components for a specific application. General techniques, providing flexibility to handle varied types of ECS configurations and different requirements (i.e., during conceptual or preliminary design, development, testing, production, and operation) are designated "company proprietary" and are not available for industry-wide use. This document describes capabilities, limitations, and potentials of a particular computer program which provides a general ECS analysis capability, and is available for use in industry. This program, names AECS1, was developed under the sponsorship of the U.S. Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory (References 1 and 2).
Standard

The Advanced Environmental Control System (AECS) Computer Program for Steady State Analysis and Preliminary System Sizing

1997-10-01
HISTORICAL
AIR1706B
Many different computer programs have been developed to determine performance capabilities of aircraft environmental control systems, and to calculate size and weight tradeoffs during preliminary design. Many of these computer programs are limited in scope to a particular arrangement of components for a specific application. General techniques, providing flexibility to handle varied types of ECS configurations and different requirements (i.e., during conceptual or preliminary design, development, testing, production, and operation) are designated “company proprietary” and are not available for industry-wide use. This document describes capabilities, limitations, and potentials of a particular computer program which provides a general ECS analysis capability, and is available for use in industry. This program, names AECS1, was developed under the sponsorship of the U.S. Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory (References 1 and 2).
Standard

Aircraft Humidification

2016-10-21
WIP
AIR1609B
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) covers the design parameters for various methods of humidification applicable to aircraft, the physiological aspects of low humidities, the possible benefits of controlling cabin humidity, the penalties associated with humidification, and the problems which must be solved for practical aircraft humidification systems. The design information is applicable to commercial and military aircraft. The physiological aspects cover all aircraft environmental control applications.
Standard

AIRCRAFT HUMIDIFICATION

1982-04-30
HISTORICAL
AIR1609
This report covers the design parameters for various methods of humidification applicable to aircraft, the physiological aspects of low humidities, the possible benefits of controlling cabin humidity, the penalties associated with humidification, and the problems which must be solved for practical aircraft humidification systems. The design information is applicable to commercial and military aircraft. The physiological aspects cover all aircraft environmental control applications.
Standard

Heat Sinks for Airborne Vehicles

2002-09-16
HISTORICAL
AIR1957
This document summarizes types of heat sinks and considerations in relation to the general requirements of aircraft heat sources, and it provides information to achieve efficient utilization and management of these heat sinks. In this document, a heat sink is defined as a body or substance used for removal of the heat generated by hydrodynamic or thermodynamic processes. This document provides general data about airborne heat sources, heat sinks, and modes of heat transfer. The document also discusses approaches to control the use of heat sinks and techniques for analysis and verification of heat sink management. The heat sinks are for aircraft operating at subsonic and supersonic speeds.
Standard

Liquid Cooling Systems

2016-09-10
WIP
AIR1811B
The purpose of this Aerospace Information Report (AIR) is to provide guidelines for the selection and design of airborne liquid cooling systems. This publication is applicable to liquid cooling systems of the closed loop type and the expendable coolant type in which the primary function is transporting of heat from its source to a heat sink. Most liquid cooling system applications are oriented toward the cooling of electronics. Liquid cooling techniques, heat sinks, design features, selection of coolants, corrosion control, and servicing requirements for these systems are presented. Information on vapor compression refrigeration systems, which are a type of cooling system, is found in Reference 1.
Standard

Spacecraft Life Support Systems

1994-01-01
HISTORICAL
AIR1168/14
A life support system (LSS) is usually defined as a system that provides elements necessary for maintaining human life and health in the state required for performing a prescribed mission. The LSS, depending upon specific design requirements, will provide pressure, temperature, and composition of local atmosphere, food, and water. It may or may not collect, dispose, or reprocess wastes such as carbon dioxide, water vapor, urine, and feces. It can be seen from the preceding definition that LSS requirements may differ widely, depending on the mission specified, such as operation in Earth orbit or lunar mission. In all cases the time of operation is an important design factor. An LSS is sometimes briefly defined as a system providing atmospheric control and water, waste, and thermal management.
Standard

Spacecraft Life Support Systems

2012-10-15
CURRENT
AIR1168/14A
A life support system (LSS) is usually defined as a system that provides elements necessary for maintaining human life and health in the state required for performing a prescribed mission. The LSS, depending upon specific design requirements, will provide pressure, temperature, and composition of local atmosphere, food, and water. It may or may not collect, dispose, or reprocess wastes such as carbon dioxide, water vapor, urine, and feces. It can be seen from the preceding definition that LSS requirements may differ widely, depending on the mission specified, such as operation in Earth orbit or lunar mission. In all cases the time of operation is an important design factor. An LSS is sometimes briefly defined as a system providing atmospheric control and water, waste, and thermal management.
Standard

The Control of Excess Humidity in Avionics Cooling

2010-06-17
CURRENT
ARP987B
This Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) outlines the causes and impacts of moisture and/or condensation in avionics equipment and provides recommendations for corrective and preventative action.
Standard

AIR CONDITIONING, HELICOPTER, GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR

1970-10-26
HISTORICAL
ARP292B
These recommendations are written to cover the general requirements of helicopter air conditioning and are sub-divided as follows: (1) Air Conditioning System - Dealing with the general design aspects. (2) Air Conditioning Equipment - Design requirements for satisfactory system function and performance. (3) Air Conditioning System Design Requirements -General information for use of those concerned in meeting requirements contained herein.
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