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Standard

Engine Bleed Air Systems for Aircraft

1987-02-01
HISTORICAL
ARP1796
This ARP discusses design philosophy, system and equipment requirements, installation environment and design considerations for systems within the ATA 100 specification, Chapter 36, Pneumatic (reference 1). This ATA system/chapter covers equipment used to deliver compressed air from a power source to connecting points for other systems such as air conditioning, pressurization, anti-icing, cross-engine starting, air turbine motors, air driven hydraulic pumps, and other pneumatic demands. The engine bleed air system includes components for preconditioning the compressed air (temperature, pressure or flow regulation), ducting to distribute high or low pressure air to the using systems, and sensors/instruments to indicate temperature and pressure levels within the system. The engine bleed air system interfaces with the following ATA 100 systems: The interface with these systems/chapters is at the inlet of the shutoff/control valve of each associated system.
Standard

Heater, Aircraft Internal Combustion Heat Exchanger Type

1996-07-01
HISTORICAL
AS8040A
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) covers internal combustion heat exchanger type heaters used in the following applications: a) cabin heating (all occupied regions and windshield heating); b) wing and empennage anti-icing; c) engine and accessory heating (when heater is installed as part of the aircraft); d) aircraft de-icing. This document details the minimum safety, performance, design, and testing requirements for internal combustion heaters and certain auxiliary devices that are considered necessary for the utilization of heaters in fixed and rotary wing aircraft. This standard is to be considered currently applicable and necessarily subject to revision from time to time due to advances in the aircraft industry. This standard is based on practical engineering requirements for aircraft heaters currently in use and is applicable to aircraft heaters that shall be developed to meet future requirements.
Standard

Heater and Accessories, Aircraft Internal Combustion Heat Exchanger Type

2019-10-01
CURRENT
AS8040C
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) covers combustion heaters and accessories used in, but not limited to, the following applications: a Cabin heating (all occupied regions and windshield heating) b Wing and empennage anti-icing c Engine and accessory heating (when heater is installed as part of the aircraft) d Aircraft deicing
Standard

Heater, Aircraft Internal Combustion Heat Exchanger Type

1988-02-01
HISTORICAL
AS8040
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) covers internal combustion heat exchanger type heaters used in the following applications: a) cabin heating (all occupied regions and windshield heating); b) wing and empennage anti-icing; c) engine and accessory heating (when heater is installed as part of the aircraft); d) aircraft de-icing. This document details the minimum safety, performance, design, and testing requirements for internal combustion heaters and certain auxiliary devices that are considered necessary for the utilization of heaters in fixed and rotary wing aircraft. This standard is to be considered currently applicable and necessarily subject to revision from time to time due to advances in the aircraft industry. This standard is based on practical engineering requirements for aircraft heaters currently in use and is applicable to aircraft heaters that shall be developed to meet future requirements.
Standard

Heater, Aircraft Internal Combustion Heat Exchanger Type

2013-02-14
HISTORICAL
AS8040B
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) covers combustion heaters used in the following applications: a Cabin heating (all occupied regions and windshield heating) b Wing and empennage anti-icing c Engine and accessory heating (when heater is installed as part of the aircraft) d Aircraft de-icing
Standard

ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL SYSTEM CONTAMINATION

1981-01-30
HISTORICAL
AIR1539
This publication will be limited to a discussion of liquid and particulate contaminants which enter the aircraft through the environmental control system (ECS). Gaseous contaminants such as ozone, fuel vapors, sulphates, etc., are not covered in this AIR. It will cover all contamination sources which interface with ECS, and the effects of this contamination on equipment. Methods of control will be limited to the equipment and interfacing ducting which normally falls within the responsiblity of the ECS designer.
Standard

Environmental Control System Contamination

2007-09-26
HISTORICAL
AIR1539B
This publication will be limited to a discussion of liquid and particulate contaminants which enter the aircraft through the environmental control system (ECS). Gaseous contaminants such as ozone, fuel vapors, sulphates, etc., are not covered in this AIR. It will cover all contamination sources which interface with ECS, and the effects of this contamination on equipment. Methods of control will be limited to the equipment and interfacing ducting which normally falls within the responsibility of the ECS designer.
Standard

Aerothermodynamic Systems Engineering and Design

1989-09-01
HISTORICAL
AIR1168/3
This section presents methods and examples of computing the steady-state heating and cooling loads of aircraft compartments. In a steady-state process the flows of heat throughout the system are stabilized and thus do not change with time. In an aircraft compartment, several elements compose the steady-state air conditioning load.
Standard

OZONE PROBLEMS IN HIGH ALTITUDE AIRCRAFT

1996-07-01
HISTORICAL
AIR910A
The purpose of this report is to provide information on ozone and its control in high altitude aircraft environmental systems. Sources of this information are listed in the selected bibliography appearing at the end of this report, to which references are made throughout.
Standard

Aircraft Fuel Weight Penalty Due to Air Conditioning

1989-09-01
HISTORICAL
AIR1168/8
The purpose of this section is to provide methods and a set of convenient working charts to estimate penalty values in terms of take-off fuel weight for any given airplane mission. The curves are for a range of specific fuel consumption (SFC) and lift/drag ratio (L/D) compatible with the jet engines and supersonic aircraft currently being developed. A typical example showing use of the charts for an air conditioning system is given. Evaluation of the penalty imposed on aircraft performance characteristics by the installation of an air conditioning system is important for two reasons: 1 It provides a common denominator for comparing systems in the preliminary design stage, thus aiding in the choice of system to be used. 2 It aids in pinpointing portions of existing systems where design improvements can be most readily achieved.
Standard

Aircraft Fuel Weight Penalty Due to Air Conditioning

2011-07-25
CURRENT
AIR1168/8A
The purpose of this section is to provide methods and a set of convenient working charts to estimate penalty values in terms of take-off fuel weight for any given airplane mission. The curves are for a range of specific fuel consumption (SFC) and lift/drag ratio (L/D) compatible with the jet engines and supersonic aircraft currently being developed. A typical example showing use of the charts for an air conditioning system is given. Evaluation of the penalty imposed on aircraft performance characteristics by the installation of an air conditioning system is important for two reasons: 1 It provides a common denominator for comparing systems in the preliminary design stage, thus aiding in the choice of system to be used. 2 It aids in pinpointing portions of existing systems where design improvements can be most readily achieved.
Standard

Characteristics of Equipment Components, Equipment Cooling System Design, and Temperature Control System Design

1993-04-01
HISTORICAL
AIR1168/6
This section relates the engineering fundamentals and thermophysical property material of the previous sections to the airborne equipment for which thermodynamic considerations apply. For each generic classification of equipment, information is presented for the types of equipment included in these categories, and the thermodynamic design considerations with respect to performance, sizing, and selection of this equipment.
Standard

Aircraft Fuel Weight Penalty Due to Air Conditioning

2011-07-25
CURRENT
AIR1168/6A
This section relates the engineering fundamentals and thermophysical property material of the previous sections to the airborne equipment for which thermodynamic considerations apply. For each generic classification of equipment, information is presented for the types of equipment included in these categories, and the thermodynamic design considerations with respect to performance, sizing, and selection of this equipment.
Standard

Aerothermodynamic Test Instrumentation and Measurement

1990-02-01
HISTORICAL
AIR1168/5
Like the technologies to which it contributes, the science of instrumentation seems to be expanding to unlimited proportions. In considering instrumentation techniques, primary emphasis was given in this section to the fundamentals of pressure, temperature, and flow measurement. Accent was placed on common measurement methods, such as manometers, thermocouples, and head meters, rather than on difficult and specialized techniques. Icing, humidity, velocity, and other special measurements were touched on briefly. Many of the references cited were survey articles or texts containing excellent bibliographies to assist a more detailed study where required.
Standard

Aerothermodynamic Test Instrumentation and Measurement

2011-07-25
CURRENT
AIR1168/5A
Like the technologies to which it contributes, the science of instrumentation seems to be expanding to unlimited proportions. In considering instrumentation techniques, primary emphasis was given in this section to the fundamentals of pressure, temperature, and flow measurement. Accent was placed on common measurement methods, such as manometers, thermocouples, and head meters, rather than on difficult and specialized techniques. Icing, humidity, velocity, and other special measurements were touched on briefly. Many of the references cited were survey articles or texts containing excellent bibliographies to assist a more detailed study where required.
Standard

Heat and Mass Transfer and Air-Water Mixtures

2011-07-25
CURRENT
AIR1168/2A
Heat transfer is the transport of thermal energy from one point to another. Heat is transferred only under the influence of a temperature gradient or temperature difference. The direction of heat transfer is always from the point at the higher temperature to the point at the lower temperature, in accordance with the second law of thermodynamics. The fundamental modes of heat transfer are conduction, convection, and radiation. Conduction is the net transfer of energy within a fluid or solid occurring by the collisions of molecules, atoms, or electrons. Convection is the transfer of energy resulting from fluid motion. Convection involves the processes of conduction, fluid motion, and mass transfer. Radiation is the transfer of energy from one point to another in the absence of a transporting medium. In practical applications several modes of heat transfer occur simultaneously.
Standard

Cooling of Military Avionic Equipment

2005-02-09
CURRENT
AIR1277B
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) contains information on the thermal design requirements of airborne avionic systems used in military airborne applications. Methods are explored which are commonly used to provide thermal control of avionic systems. Both air and liquid cooled systems are discussed.
Standard

COOLING OF MODERN AIRBORNE ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT

1976-05-01
HISTORICAL
AIR1277
This document contains information on the cooling of modern airborne electronics, emphasizing the use of a heat exchange surface which separates coolant and component. It supplements the information contained in AIR 64 for the draw through method and in AIR 728 for high Mach Number aircraft. Report contents include basic methods, characteristics of coolants, application inside and outside of the "black box" use of thermostatic controls to improve reliability and system design. Characteristics of typical cooling components are treated sufficiently to permit selection and to estimate size and weight. While emphasis is placed herein on equipment cooling, section 9 dealing with thermal control of the environment, reminds the reader that some equipment will require heating for start up from a cold condition or as a means to control temperature within narrow limits (e.g. in a crystal oven). Property data and constants are also tabulated.
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