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Standard

COMMERCIAL AIRCRAFT AUXILIARY POWER UNIT INSTALLATIONS

1991-01-29
CURRENT
AIR4204
This Aerospace Information Report (AIR) reviews the factors to be considered in determining the location and arrangement for auxiliary power unit (APU) installations for airborne applications and reviews requirements for flight suitability. As treated in this discussion, the APU normally includes a power section (or engine), a starting system, an electronic control unit (ECU), a gearbox with accessory mounting pads, and an oil cooling system. The accessories that are driven by the APU, such as CSD's (constant speed drives), alternating current (AC) generators, hydraulic pumps, or air compressors, are not covered here except insofar as they make demands on the APU. The various installation components and systems that are covered here are outlined by the table of contents. Turbine-type APU's are by far the most highly developed and universally used airborne units, so their installation will dominate the discussion in this document.
Standard

AUXILIARY POWER SYSTEM CONSIDERATIONS FOR ADVANCED MILITARY AIRCRAFT

1993-06-01
CURRENT
AIR1603
This document provides a brief description of the auxiliary power equipment that is available with enough description and pertinent comments to enable an engineer to make logical preliminary selection of the appropriate equipment for advanced military aircraft programs. The information has been kept as brief as possible to include the maximum amount of equipment in a relatively short document. It is not intended to replace textbook design analysis or detailed information available from the equipment suppliers. The document describes auxiliary power equipment. Auxiliary power is defined as follows: "Those elements of secondary power [defined as all aircraft nonpropulsive power generation and transmission] related to main engine bleed air and shaft power extraction or power generation separate from the main engines. Included are engine bleed air systems, remote engine driven gearboxes, engine starting systems, auxiliary power units, and emergency power systems."
Standard

Introduction to Starting Systems

1996-01-01
CURRENT
AIR4151
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) covers basic aircraft engine start systems fundamentals. It presents various ground power sources and aircraft “on board” starting units. Also included are descriptions of start system components and interconnections which together comprise an engine starting system.
Standard

Aircraft Accessory Drag Torque During Engine Starts

1999-04-01
CURRENT
AIR1087B
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) presents a discussion of drag torques of engine accessories operating at cold temperature. Various conditions of temperature, speed, and acceleration rates are reviewed showing the merits of each method and recommending a standard test method.
Standard

STARTER SYSTEM OPTIMIZATION START ANALYSIS, TURBINE ENGINE - ELECTRIC, BATTERY POWER

1987-08-01
CURRENT
AIR1602
This SAE Aerospace Information Report includes procedures for the analysis of a gas turbine engine start. It utilizes a standard form for the essential starting characteristics of the gas turbine engine and for the starting power capability of the aircraft battery. This report illustrates the format of the characteristic which is provided by the electric starter to transform the battery electric power (voltage and current) to the mechanical power (torque and speed) required to successfully start the engine. An aircraft engine start battery typically also serves as a backup source for emergency electrical energy. Guidelines are therefore provided for the determination of battery capacity to fulfill the emergency energy requirements of the aircraft.
Standard

PERFORMANCE ACCEPTANCE TESTING OF AIR TURBINE STARTERS

1982-02-25
CURRENT
ARP715A
This Aerospace Recommended Practice describes two performance acceptance test methods to determine the performance acceptability of new production and overhauled air turbine starters. Before a new or overhauled starter is delivered to a customer, the starter is subjected to a performance acceptance test in accordance with an acceptance test procedure. The performance acceptance test is intended to ensure that the customer receives a starter that meets or exceeds minimum starter performance requirements.
Standard

PNEUMATIC GROUND POWER SUPPLIES FOR STARTING AIRCRAFT

1990-02-01
HISTORICAL
AIR944B
The material contained in this report has been simplified to facilitate its use. Specific manufacturers should be contacted for more detailed information. Many of the basic power supplies are available in numerous configurations and some provide shaft power or electrical power in addition to the pneumatic capability. Vehicles for the ground transportation of the power supplies are also varied to fit specific requirements.
Standard

PNEUMATIC GROUND POWER SUPPLIES FOR STARTING AIRCRAFT

1978-01-01
HISTORICAL
AIR944A
The material contained in this report has been simplified to facilitate its use. Specific manufacturers should be contacted for more detailed information. Many of the basic power supplies are available in numerous configurations and some provide shaft power or electrical power in addition to the pneumatic capability. Vehicles for the ground transportation of the power supplies are also varied to fit specific requirements. The state-of-the-art in small gas turbines has advanced to a point where they are competitive with the more conventional ground power supplies in practically all areas.
Standard

Pneumatic Ground Power Supplies for Starting Aircraft

2004-04-06
CURRENT
AIR944C
The material contained in this report has been simplified to facilitate its use. Specific manufacturers should be contacted for more detailed information. Many of the basic power supplies are available in numerous configurations and some provide shaft power or electrical power in addition to the pneumatic capability. Vehicles for the ground transportation of the power supplies are also varied to fit specific requirements.
Standard

Aircraft Hydraulic Start Motor

1965-04-01
HISTORICAL
AS714
This Aerospace Standard (AS) establishes the requirements for hydraulic start motors suitable for use in starting a gas turbine engine, and the methods to be used for demonstrating compliance with these requirements.
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