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Technical Paper

Design and Fabrication of a Passive Deployable/Stowable Radiator

2006-07-17
2006-01-2038
A lightweight 100 W-class deployable radiator with environment-adaptive functions has been investigated. This radiator - Reversible Thermal Panel (RTP) - is composed of flexible high thermal conductive materials and a passive reversible actuator, and it changes its function from a radiator to a solar absorber by deploying/stowing the reversible fin upon changes in the heat dissipation and thermal environment. The RTP is considered one of the candidates of thermal control methodology for the Japanese Venus mission “Planet-C”, which will be launched in 2010 to save its survival heater power. In this paper, design and fabrication of the RTP proto-model (PM) and the test results of deployment/stowing characteristics in an atmospheric condition are reported. Thermal performance estimation with thermal analytical model of the RTP PM is also presented.
Technical Paper

Heat Rejection/Retention Characteristics of a Re-deployable Radiator for Venus Exploration Mission

2007-07-09
2007-01-3241
This paper experimentally and analytically evaluates the heat rejection/retention performance of a reversible thermal panel (RTP) which can autonomously change thermal performance depending on its own thermal conditions. The RTP is considered as a candidate methodology for thermal control of Venus mission, PLANET-C, in order to save survival heater power. An RTP prototype was tested and evaluated. An analytical thermal model of the RTP was also developed, and basic performances of the RTP were evaluated. Thermal performance of the RTP when applied to the longwave camera (LIR) of the PLANET-C was evaluated with an analytical thermal model as functions of fin deployment directions and rear surface properties of the RTP's fin. The analytical results showed that the RTP can save heater power in comparison to a conventional radiator.
Technical Paper

Thermal Design of the Lunar Exploring Spacecraft

1997-07-01
972469
The thermal design of the LUNAR-A spacecraft, investigating the internal structure of the moon, is a challenge due to the widely varying thermal environments. A passive thermal control philosophy of radiators, multilayer insulation (MLI) and heaters was used for the LUNAR-A thermal design. Verification of the design was performed separately for the major spacecraft modules which consisted of a main structure, a propulsion subsystem and penetrators. As consequence, acceptable thermal performance can be expected for all phases of the mission. This paper describes the thermal design, analysis, thermal model testing and in-orbit temperature predictions.
Technical Paper

Development of a Flexible Thermal Control Device with High-Thermal-Conductivity Graphite Sheets

2003-07-07
2003-01-2471
This paper describes a new passive thermal control device-a Reversible Thermal Panel (RTP)-which changes its function reversibly from a radiator to a solar absorber by deploying/stowing the radiator/absorber reversible fin. The RTP consists of Highly Oriented Graphite Sheets (HOGSs), which have characteristics of high thermal conductivity, flexibility and light weight, as thermal transport units, which can transport the heat from equipment to reversible fin, and of a Shape - Memory Alloy (SMA) as a passively rotary actuator to deploy/stow the reversible fin. The RTP prototype model was designed and fabricated using HOGSs, a honeycomb base palate, and a prototype reversible rotary actuator. The heat rejection performance of the RTP as a radiator and the heat absorption performance as an absorber were evaluated by thermal vacuum tests and thermal analyses. The autonomous thermal controllability achieved using the prototype rotary actuator was also evaluated.
Technical Paper

Smart Radiation Device: Design of an Intelligent Material with Variable Emittance

2001-07-09
2001-01-2342
Variable emittance radiator, called SRD, is a thin and light ceramic tile whose infrared emissivity is varied proportionally by its own temperature. Bonded only to the external surface of spacecrafts, it controls the heat radiated to deep space without electrical or mechanical parts such as the thermal louver. By applying this new device for thermal control of spacecrafts, considerable weight and cost reductions can be achieved easily. In this paper, the new design and the new manufacturing process of the SRD and its optical properties, such as the total hemispherical emittance and the solar absorptance, are described. By introducing this new design and manufacturing process, the weight of the SRD is easily decreased, keeping its strength and the optical properties.
Technical Paper

Design of Thermal Radiative Properties of Multilayer Films on a Variable Emittance Radiator

2001-07-09
2001-01-2339
New thermal control material named Smart Radiation Device (SRD) has been studied to apply for spacecraft. Infrared radiative properties of the SRD change depending on its own temperature without electrical or mechanical instruments. The SRD however shows too high solar absorptance to apply it as a radiator. To overcome such drawback, it is necessary to design and apply the mutilayer films on the SRD for reflecting solar radiation, keeping infrared radiative properties of the SRD. To perform optimum design of the multilayer films, the genetic algorithm (GA) was employed. In this paper, we propose a design of the thermal radiative properties of the SRD with the multilayer films.
Technical Paper

Development of a Variable Emittance Radiator, 1999

1999-07-12
1999-01-2090
The Smart Radiation Device (SRD) is a thin and light tile whose infrared emissivity is varied proportionally by the temperature of the radiator. Bonded only to the external surface of the spacecraft’s instruments, it controls the heat radiated to deep space without electrical or mechanical instruments used for changing emissivity. Its function is similar to the thermal louver which has been used for a lot of spacecraft, but the SRD is lighter than it. Thus, by using this new device, we can control the temperature of the instruments on the spacecraft more easily. The materials of the SRD are La0.825Sr0.175MnO3 and La0.7Ca0.3MnO3. In this paper, design and preliminary test results of the SRD will be presented. The optical properties for the materials of the SRD, such as the total hemispherical emittance and the solar absorptance, have been measured. In addition the degradation by protons has been investigated.
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