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Technical Paper

Experimental Validation of a Heavy Goods Vehicle Fuel Consumption Model

Over the last decade the simulation of driving cycles through longitudinal vehicle models has become an important stage in the design, analysis and selection of vehicle powertrains. This paper presents an overview of existing software packages, along with the development of a new multipurpose driving cycle simulator implemented in the Matlab/Simulink environment. In order to evaluate the performance of the simulator, a MAN TGL 12.240 multi-usage delivery vehicle was fitted with a CAN-bus data logger and used to create a series of ‘real-life’ drive cycles. These were inputted into the vehicle model and the simulated fuel mass flow-rate and engine rotational speed were compared to those experimentally obtained.
Technical Paper

Tire Thermal Model for Enhanced Vehicle Dynamics Simulation

Brush models permit a more physical simulation of tire performance in comparison with models based on empirical formulas. The paper presents an empirical model for the estimation of tire temperature as function of the actual working conditions of the component. The estimated temperature values enter a tire brush model and provoke the variation of the performance in terms of tangential forces. The model can be empirically tuned through experimental data showing the variation of tire performance as function of temperature. The experimental validation of the model is dealt with in detail.
Technical Paper

Enhanced Tire Brush Model for Vehicle Dynamics Simulation

The aim of this paper is the conception of a tire model which allows a good fit with the physical experimental behavior of the component. In the meanwhile, the model should be simple enough to permit real time vehicle dynamics simulation, in the same way as the diffused Pacejka's model. The paper discusses the influence of the model for the estimation of contact patch properties on the overall tire forces and moments. It demonstrates that unrealistic models of the contact patch can lead to a good fit with the experimental data (in terms of forces and self-aligning moment), even if the real physics of the tire is not reproduced. A realistic model implies a significant reduction of the stiffness of the brushes as a function of the vertical load between the tire and the road surface.
Technical Paper

Racing Simulation of a Formula 1 Vehicle with Kinetic Energy Recovery System

This paper deals with the development of a Lap Time Simulator in order to carry out a first approximate evaluation of the potential benefits related to the adoption of the Kinetic Energy Recovery System (KERS). KERS will be introduced in the 2009 Formula 1 Season. This system will be able to store energy during braking and then use it in order to supply an extra acceleration during traction. Different technologies (e.g. electrical, hydraulic and mechanical) could be applied in order to achieve this target. The lap time simulator developed by the authors permits to investigate the advantages both in terms of fuel consumption reduction and the improvement of the lap time.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Dynamics Simulation to Develop an Active Roll Control System

Active Roll Control (ARC) is one of the most promising active systems to improve vehicle comfort and handling. This paper describes the simulation based procedure adopted to conceive a double-channel Active Roll Control system, characterized by the hydraulic actuation of the stabilizer bars of a sedan. The first part of the paper presents the vehicle model adopted for this activity. It is Base Model Simulator (BMS), the 14 Degrees-of-Freedom vehicle model by Politecnico di Torino. It was validated through road tests. Then the paper describes the development of the control algorithm adopted to improve the roll dynamics of the vehicle. The implemented control algorithm is characterized by a first subsystem, capable of obtaining the desired values of body roll angle as a function of lateral acceleration during semi-stationary maneuvers.
Technical Paper

Driveline Layout Influence on Four Wheel Drive Dynamics

The paper presents the research activity managed to investigate the dynamics of a 4WD vehicle equipped considering drivelines with different layout. The procedure developed required to conceive an on purpose simulator to compare performance through virtual experimentation. Drivelines mechanical main characteristics and performance increasing due to control strategy were evaluated. Preliminary road test were performed with a single driveline layout, to evaluate simulation reliability and limits. The paper presents the 4WD vehicle simulator, the main equations applied to model open, torque sensing and limited slip differentials, some preliminary road test results showing torque sensing driveline performance.
Technical Paper

Base Model Simulator (BMS) - A Vehicle Dynamics Model to Evaluate Chassis Control Systems Performance

Chassis Control Systems development methodology is nowadays strongly based on analyzing performance by using PC vehicle dynamics simulation. Generally, the overall design, test bench and road validation process is continuously accompanied by simulation. The Base Model Simulator was developed by the Vehicle Dynamics Group at the Department of Mechanics of Politecnico di Torino both to satisfy this requirement and for educational purposes. It considers a complete vehicle dynamics mathematical model, including driver, powertrain, driveline, vehicle body, suspensions, steering system, brakes, tires. The Base Model Simulator takes in account the suspensions system elastokinematics, including, for example, automatic computation of camber variation during the vehicle roll motions. Tire model considered are either Pacejka's models or experimental data.
Journal Article

A Novel Seamless 2-Speed Transmission System for Electric Vehicles: Principles and Simulation Results

This article deals with a novel 2-speed transmission system specifically designed for electric axle applications. The design of this transmission permits seamless gearshifts and is characterized by a simple mechanical layout. The equations governing the overall system dynamics are presented in the paper. The principles of the control system for the seamless gearshifts achievable by the novel transmission prototype - currently under experimental testing at the University of Surrey and on a prototype vehicle - are analytically demonstrated and detailed through advanced simulation tools. The simulation results and sensitivity analyses for the main parameters affecting the overall system dynamics are presented and discussed.
Journal Article

Vehicle Simulation for the Development of an Active Suspension System for an Agricultural Tractor

The design of suspension systems for heavy-duty vehicles covers a specific field of automotive industry. The proposed work focuses on the design development of a front controllable suspension for an agricultural tractor capable to satisfy the system requirements under different operating conditions. The design of the control algorithms is based on the developed multibody model of the actual tractor, including the pitch motion of the sprung mass, the anti-dive effects during braking and forward-reverse maneuvers and the non-linear dynamics of the actuation system. For an advanced analysis, a novel thermo-hydraulic model of the hydraulic system has been implemented. Several semi-active damping controls are analyzed for the specific case study.
Journal Article

Torque Gap Filler for Automated Manual Transmissions: Principles for the Development of the Control Algorithm

One of the most significant tasks in automotive design is related to the implementation of gearboxes capable of reducing the torque gap during the gearshift process and, at the same time, not decreasing vehicle performance from the point of view of driveline efficiency. Automated gearboxes based on torque converters ([1], [2]) satisfy the first requirement but not the second. On the other hand, manual automated gearboxes ([3], [4], [5], [6]) satisfy the requirements in terms of consumption, due to the absence of the dissipations caused by the torque converter. In fact, they consist of the basic layout of a manual transmission with hydraulic or electromechanical actuators which are adopted for the clutch and the synchronizers. However, automated manual transmissions cannot guarantee optimal longitudinal dynamics of the vehicle due to the discontinuity in torque transmission when the clutch is disengaged.