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Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation of Transient Thermal Convection of a Full Vehicle

Many critical thermal issues that occur in vehicles are uncovered only under more “thermally stressed” driving conditions that are transient in nature such as abruptly changing vehicle speed or turning off fan and engine. Therefore, for flow simulations to be useful in the vehicle design process, it is imperative that these simulations have the ability to accurately model long term transient thermal convection on full vehicles. Presented are simulations for a passenger vehicle driving at 60 kilometers per hour followed by a complete stop. The simulations were performed using a coupling between the flow and thermal solver and in the process, taking into account convection, conduction and radiation effects. Temperature predictions were made both under steady state conditions and during the key-off. Good agreement with the measurements was observed.
Technical Paper

Long Term Transient Cooling of Heavy Vehicle Cabin Compartments

A newly developed simulation methodology for a long term, transient tractor cabin cool-down is presented in this paper. The air flow was simulated using a Lattice-Boltzmann Equation (LBE) based 3-dimensional flow solver. The conduction and radiation effects on the solid parts as well as the average cabin air temperature evolution were solved by the thermal solver, which also includes a human comfort model. The simulation results were compared with the measured experimental test data and good agreement was observed validating the developed simulation approach. The developed methodology can be applied to all other ground vehicles cabin comfort applications.
Technical Paper

Under-hood Thermal Simulation of a Class 8 Truck

A validation study was performed comparing the simulation results of the Lattice-Boltzmann Equation (LBE) based flow solver, PowerFLOW®, to cooling cell measurements conducted at Volvo Trucks North America (VTNA). The experimental conditions were reproduced in the simulations including dynamometer cell geometry, fully detailed under-hood, and external tractor geometry. Interactions between the air flow and heat exchangers were modeled through a coupled simulation with the 1D-tool, PowerCOOL™, to solve for engine coolant and charge air temperatures. Predicted temperatures at the entry and exit plane of the radiator and charge-air-cooler were compared to thermocouple measurements. In addition, a detailed flow analysis was performed to highlight regions of fan shroud loss and cooling airflow recirculation. This information was then used to improve cooling performance in a knowledge-based incremental design process.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Class 8 Truck Cooling System: Comparison to Experiment under Different Engine Operation Conditions

More stringent heavy vehicle emissions legislation demands considerably higher performance for engine cooling systems. This paper presents a study of cooling airflow for a Freightliner Class 8 truck. The predicted radiator coolant inlet and charge-air-cooler outlet temperatures are in very good agreement with the measured data. The under hood flow behavior is described and potential areas of improvement leading to better cooling airflow performance are highlighted. The airflow simulation approach is based on the Lattice-Boltzmann Method (LBM) and is described in detail. It is shown that the presented simulation approach can provide accurate predictions of cooling airflow and coolant temperature across different fan speeds.
Technical Paper

Cooling Airflow Simulation for Passenger Cars using Detailed Underhood Geometry

Air flow in the underhood area is the primary source of engine cooling. A quick look at the vehicle underhood reveals exceptionally complex geometry. In addition to the engine, there are fans, radiator, condenser, other heat exchangers and components. The air flow needs to have adequate access to all relevant parts that require cooling. Due to complex geometry, the task to ensure sufficient air cooling is not a simple one. The air flow entering from the front grille is affected by many components on its path through the underhood. Even small geometry details affect the flow direction and can easily cause recirculation regions which reduce the cooling efficiency. Therefore, air cooling flow analysis requires detailed treatment of the underhood geometry and at the same time accurate air flow modeling. Recent advances in the lattice-Boltzmann equation (LBE) modeling are allowing both.
Journal Article

Simulation of Cooling Airflow and Surface Temperature of a Midsize Truck

This paper presents a simulation of the cooling airflow and surface temperatures of a midsize truck. The simulation uses full detailed geometry of the truck. Performance of the under-hood cooling airflow is analyzed and potential design changes leading to better cooling airflow are highlighted. Surface temperature over certain under-hood part is studied. Possible optimizations using various material and configurations are proposed. It is shown that the presented simulation approach provides valuable information to evaluate cooling system and thermal protection performance. Fast design iterations can be achieved using this approach.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Cooling Airflow under Different Driving Conditions

Presented are simulations of cooling airflow and external aerodynamics over Land Rover LR3 and Ford Mondeo cars under several driving conditions. The simulations include details of the external flow field together with the flow in the under-hood and underbody areas. Shown is the comparison between the predicted and measured coolant inlet temperature in the radiator, drag and lift coefficients, temperature distribution on the radiator front face, and wake total pressure distribution. Very good agreement is observed. In addition, shown is the complex evolution of the temperature field in the idle case with strong under-hood recirculation. It is shown that the presented Lattice-Boltzmann Method based approach can provide accurate predictions of both cooling airflow and external aerodynamics.
Technical Paper

Analytical Study of the Cavitation on a Vibrating Wall

Cavitation induced cylinder liner erosion can be a significant durability problem in high power density diesel engines. It is typically discovered in the field, thus causing costly redesigns. The application of a predictive simulation to analyze the liner cavitation process upfront could identify the problem early on and enable significant savings. Hence, this work investigates the ability of the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) multiphase flow simulation tool to handle vibration induced cavitation. A flow of liquid through a U-shaped duct is analyzed, where a middle segment of the duct is set to vibrate in a manner resembling vibration of the cooling jacket walls in an internal combustion engine. Velocity, pressure and vapor concentration fields are tracked for two cases, distinguished by different frequencies of duct wall vibration.
Technical Paper

DVE - Direct Vehicle Exhaust Flow Measurement using Head-type Flowmeters

When exhaust emissions from a vehicle are measured, a flow rate is needed in addition to pollutant concentrations in order to calculate the mass emitted. The highly unsteady flow from an internal combustion engine presents measurement challenges to exhaust flowmeters, especially at idle. Mass measurement methods used in the past have gotten around this problem by a variable dilution scheme (CVS) that measures a different, more favorable flow, but reduces and can contaminate exhaust gas concentration levels. The flow measurement system described here makes possible a more accurate measure of the vehicle exhaust flow by means of a number of design features. This improves considerably the cost effectiveness and accuracy of emissions measurement techniques such as the Bag-Minidiluter sampling system and raw modal analysis.
Technical Paper

Transient Simulation of DGI Engine Injector with Needle Movement

Utilization of direct injection systems is one of the most promising technologies for fuel economy improvement for SI engine powered passenger cars. Engine performance is essentially influenced by the characteristics of the injection equipment. This paper will present CFD analyses of a swirl type GDI injector carried out with the Multiphase Module of AVL's FIRE/SWIFT CFD code. The simulations considered three phases (liquid fuel, fuel vapor, air) and mesh movement. Thus the transient behavior of the injector can be observed. The flow phenomena known from measurement and shown by previous simulation work [2, 7, 10, 11] were reproduced. In particular the simulations shown in this paper could explain the cause for the outstanding atomization characteristics of the swirl type injector, which are caused by cavitation in the nozzle hole.
Technical Paper

DIGITAL PHYSICS™ Analysis of the Morel Body in Ground Proximity

Presented is a study of the air flow over the Morel body [1] in ground proximity which was obtained using a discrete particle method, referred to as DIGITAL PHYSICS. The results were computed at several back-light angles and will be compared to experimental observations. Separation and reattachment along the angled section at a back-light angle of 30 degrees, and complete separation at 35 degrees, were both accurately predicted.
Technical Paper

Update on A-Pillar Overflow Simulation

The management of surface water flows driven from the wind screen by the action of wipers and aerodynamic shear is a growing challenge for automotive manufacturers. Pressure to remove traditional vehicle features, such as A-Pillar steps for aesthetic, aeroacoustic and aerodynamic reasons increases the likelihood that surface water may be convected over the A-Pillar and onto the front side glass where it can compromise drivers’ vision. The ability to predict where and under which conditions the A-Pillar will be breached is important for making correct design decisions. The use of numerical simulation in this context is desirable, as experimental testing relies on the use of aerodynamics test properties which will not be fully representative, or late-stage prototypes, making it difficult and costly to correct issues. This paper provides an update on the ability of simulation to predict A-Pillar overflow, comparing physical and numerical results for a test vehicle.
Technical Paper

Robust Optimization for Real World CO2 Reduction

Ground transportation industry contributes to about 14% of the global CO2 emissions. Therefore, any effort in reducing global CO2 needs to include the design of cleaner and more energy efficient vehicles. Their design needs to be optimized for the real-world conditions. Using wind tunnels that can only reproduce idealized conditions quite often does not translate into real-world on-road CO2 reduction and improved energy efficiency. Several recent studies found that very rarely can the real-world environment be represented by turbulence-free conditions simulated in wind tunnels. The real-world conditions consist of both transversal flow velocity component (causing an oncoming yaw flow) as well as large-scale turbulent fluctuations, with length scales of up to many times the size of a vehicle. The study presented in this paper shows how the realistic wind affects the aerodynamics of the vehicle.