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Technical Paper

A Framework for Optimization of the Traction Motor Design Based on the Series-HEV System Level Goals

The fidelity of the hybrid electric vehicle simulation is increased with the integration of a computationally-efficient finite-element based electric machine model, in order to address optimization of component design for system level goals. In-wheel electric motors are considered because of the off-road military application which differs significantly from commercial HEV applications. Optimization framework is setup by coupling the vehicle simulation to the constrained optimization solver. Utilizing the increased design flexibility afforded by the model, the solver is able to reshape the electric machine's efficiency map to better match the vehicle operation points. As the result, the favorable design of the e-machine is selected to improve vehicle fuel economy and reduce cost, while satisfying performance constraints.
Technical Paper

Conceptualization and Implementation of a Dual-Purpose Battery Electric Powertrain Concept for an Urban Utility/Activity Vehicle

The Deep Orange framework is an integral part of the graduate automotive engineering education at Clemson University International Center for Automotive Research (CU-ICAR). The initiative was developed to immerse students into the world of an OEM. For the sixth generation of Deep Orange, the goal was to develop an urban utility/activity vehicle for the year 2020. The objective of this paper is to describe the development and implementation of a dual-purpose powertrain system enabling vehicle propulsion as well as stationary activities of the Deep Orange 6 vehicle concept. AutoPacific data were first examined to define personas on the basis of their demographics and psychographics. The resulting market research, benchmarking, and brand essence studies were then converted to consumer needs and wants, to establish vehicle target and subsystem requirement, which formed the foundation of the Unique Selling Points (USPs) of the concept.
Journal Article

Quantification of Drive Cycle's Rapid Speed Fluctuations Using Fourier Analysis

This paper presents a new way to evaluate vehicle speed profile aggressiveness, quantify it from the perspective of the rapid speed fluctuations, and assess its impact on vehicle fuel economy. The speed fluctuation can be divided into two portions: the large-scale low frequency speed trace which follows the ongoing traffic and road characteristics, and the small-scale rapid speed fluctuations normally related to the driver's experience, style and ability to anticipate future events. The latter represent to some extent the driver aggressiveness and it is well known to affect the vehicle energy consumption and component duty cycles. Therefore, the rapid speed fluctuations are the focus of this paper. Driving data collected with the GPS devices are widely adopted for study of real-world fuel economy, or the impact on electrified vehicle range and component duty cycles.
Journal Article

Impacts of Real-World Driving and Driver Aggressiveness on Fuel Consumption of 48V Mild Hybrid Vehicle

The 48V mild hybrid technology is emerging as a very attractive option for high-volume vehicle electrification. Compared to high-voltage hybrids, the 48V system has a potential of achieving competitive fuel economy with significantly lower incremental costs. While previous studies of 48V mild hybrid systems discussed vehicle configuration, power management strategy and electric machine design, quantitative assessment of fuel economy under real-world conditions remains an open topic. Objectives of this paper are to propose a methodology for categorizing real-world cycles based on driver aggressiveness, and to subsequently analyze the impact of driving patterns on fuel saving potentials with a 48V mild hybrid system. Instead of using the certification test cycles to evaluate the fuel economy, real-world cycles are extracted from 2001-2003 Southern California Household Travel Survey.