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Technical Paper

Tractor-Semitrailer Stability Following a Steer Axle Tire Blowout at Speed and Comparison to Computer Simulation Models

2013-04-08
2013-01-0795
This paper documents the vehicle response of a tractor-semitrailer following a sudden air loss (Blowout) in a steer axle tire while traveling at highway speeds. The study seeks to compare full-scale test data to predicted response from detailed heavy truck computer vehicle dynamics simulation models. Full-scale testing of a tractor-semitrailer experiencing a sudden failure of a steer axle tire was conducted. Vehicle handling parameters were recorded by on-board computers leading up to and immediately following the sudden air loss. Inertial parameters (roll, yaw, pitch, and accelerations) were measured and recorded for the tractor and semitrailer, along with lateral and longitudinal speeds. Steering wheel angle was also recorded. These data are presented and also compared to the results of computer simulation models. The first simulation model, SImulation MOdel Non-linear (SIMON), is a vehicle dynamic simulation model within the Human Vehicle Environment (HVE) software environment.
Journal Article

Semitrailer Torsional Stiffness Data for Improved Modeling Fidelity

2011-09-13
2011-01-2163
Vehicle dynamics models employed in heavy truck simulation often treat the semitrailer as a torsionally rigid member, assuming zero deflection along its longitudinal axis as a moment is applied to its frame. Experimental testing, however, reveals that semitrailers do twist, sometimes enough to precipitate rollover when a rigid trailer may have remained upright. Improving the model by incorporating realistic trailer roll stiffness values can improve assessment of heavy truck dynamics, as well as an increased understanding of the effectiveness of stability control systems in limit handling maneuvers. Torsional stiffness measurements were conducted by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) for eight semitrailers of different types, including different length box vans, traditional and spread axle flat beds, and a tanker.
Journal Article

Brake Timing Measurements for a Tractor-Semitrailer Under Emergency Braking

2009-10-06
2009-01-2918
The timing and associated levels of braking between initial brake pedal application and actual maximum braking at the wheels for a tractor-semitrailer are important parameters in understanding vehicle performance and response. This paper presents detailed brake timing information obtained from full scale instrumented testing of a tractor-semitrailer under various conditions of load and speed. Brake timing at steer, drive and semitrailer brake positions is analyzed for each of the tested conditions. The study further seeks to compare the full scale test data to predicted response from detailed heavy truck computer vehicle dynamics simulation models available in commercial software packages in order to validate the model's brake timing parameters. The brake timing data was collected during several days of full scale instrumented testing of a tractor-semitrailer performed at the Transportation Research Center, in East Liberty, Ohio.
Technical Paper

Straight-Line Dry Tractor-Semitrailer Braking and Handling Comparison to HVE Computer SImulation

2010-10-05
2010-01-1921
The ability of a simulation model to accurately predict vehicle response is investigated in this paper. This study seeks to compare full-scale tractor-semitrailer straight-line braking test data to predicted response from a detailed heavy truck computer vehicle dynamics simulation model. The model, Simulation MOdel Non-linear (SIMON), is a vehicle dynamic simulation model within the Human Vehicle Environment (HVE) software environment. This computer program includes a vehicle dynamic model capable of simulating vehicle motion in 3-dimensional environments and includes Brake Designer and ABS Simulation Models. The results of several days of full scale instrumented testing of a tractor-semitrailer performed at the Transportation Research Center, in East Liberty, Ohio are presented.
Journal Article

Comparison of Heavy Truck Engine Control Unit Hard Stop Data with Higher-Resolution On-Vehicle Data

2009-04-20
2009-01-0879
Engine control units (ECUs) on heavy trucks have been capable of storing “last stop” or “hard stop” data for some years. These data provide useful information to accident reconstruction personnel. In past studies, these data have been analyzed and compared to higher-resolution on-vehicle data for several heavy trucks and several makes of passenger cars. Previous published studies have been quite helpful in understanding the limitations and/or anomalies associated with these data. This study was designed and executed to add to the technical understanding of heavy truck event data recorders (EDR), specifically data associated with a modern Cummins power plant ECU. Emergency “full-treadle” stops were performed at many combinations of load-speed-surface coefficient conditions. In addition, brake-in-curve tests were performed on wet Jennite for various conditions of disablement of the braking system.
Journal Article

The Influence of Disablement of Various Brakes on the Dry Stopping Performance and Stability of a Tractor-Semitrailer

2009-04-20
2009-01-0099
This research was performed using a designed experiment to evaluate the loss of dry surface braking performance and stability that could be associated with the disablement of specific brake positions on a tractor-semitrailer. The experiment was intended to supplement and update previous research by Heusser, Radlinski, Flick, and others. It also sought to establish reasonable limits for engineering estimates on stopping performance degradation attributable to partial or complete brake failure of individual S-cam air brakes on a class 8 truck. Stopping tests were conducted from 30 mph and 60 mph, with the combination loaded to GCW (80,000 lb.), half-payload, and with the flatbed semitrailer unladen. Both tractor and semitrailer were equipped with antilock brakes. Along with stopping distance, brake pressures, longitudinal acceleration, road wheel speed, and steering wheel position and effort were also recorded.
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