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Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation on Intake Air Temperature and Air-Fuel Ratio Dependence of Random and Deterministic Cyclic Variability in a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engine

2011-04-12
2011-01-1183
Due to the increasingly stricter emission legislations and growing demand for lower fuel consumption, there have been significant efforts to improve combustion efficiency, while satisfying the emission requirements. Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion offers significant efficiency improvements compared to conventional gasoline engines. However, due to the nature of HCCI, fully homogeneous charge HCCI combustion can be realized only in a limited operating range. Control of HCCI engines to obtain the desirable operation requires understanding of how different charge variables influence the cyclic variations in HCCI combustion. Under certain operating conditions, HCCI engines exhibit large cyclic variations in ignition timing. Cyclic variability ranging from stochastic to deterministic patterns can be observed. One important design goal for engine development is to minimize cyclic variability.
Technical Paper

Combustion and Emission Behavior of Ethanol Fuelled Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engine

2008-01-09
2008-28-0064
The Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) is the third alternative for the combustion in the reciprocating engine. HCCI a hybrid of well-known spark ignition (SI) and compression ignition (CI) engine concepts and has potential of combining the best features of both. A two cylinder, four stroke, direct injection diesel engine was modified to operate one cylinder on the compression ignition by detonation of homogeneous mixture of ethanol and air. The homogeneous mixture of the charge is prepared by port injection of ethanol in the preheated Intake air. This study presents results of experimental investigations of HCCI combustion of ethanol at intake air temperature of 120°C and at different air-fuel ratios. In this paper, the combustion parameters, pressure time history, rate of pressure rise, rate of heat release, mean temperature history in the combustion chamber is analyzed and discussed.
Technical Paper

Emission and Combustion Characteristics of Vegetable Oil (Jatropha curcus) Blends in an Indirect Ignition Transportation Engine

2008-01-09
2008-28-0034
The scarce and rapidly depleting conventional petroleum resources have promoted research for alternative fuels for internal combustion engines. Among various possible options, fuels derived from vegetable oils present promising “greener” substitutes for fossil fuels. Vegetable oils due to their agricultural origin are able to reduce net CO2 emissions to the atmosphere along with import substitution of petroleum products. However, several operational and durability problems of using straight vegetable oils in diesel engines reported, which are because of their higher viscosity and low volatility compared to mineral diesel. In the present research, experiments were designed to study the effect of reducing Jatropha oil's viscosity by blending with mineral diesel, thereby eliminating its effect on combustion characteristics of the engine. In the present experimental research, vegetable oil (Jatropha Curcus) was used as substitute fuel.
Technical Paper

Laser Ignition of Hydrogen-Air Mixture in a Combustion Bomb

2008-01-09
2008-28-0033
Due to the demands of the market to increase efficiency and power density of large MW size gas engines, existing ignition schemes are gradually reaching their limits. These limitations initially triggered the development of laser ignition as an effective alternative, first only for gas engines and now for a much wider range of internal combustion engines revealing a number of immediate advantages like no electrode erosion or flame kernel quenching. Within this broad range investigation, laser plasmas were generated by ns Nd-YAG laser pulses and characterized by emission and Schlieren diagnostic methods. High-pressure chamber experiments with lean hydrogen- air mixtures were successfully performed and allowed the determination of essential parameters like minimum pulse energies at different ignition pressures and temperatures as well as at variable fuel air compositions. In this way, relevant parameters were acquired allowing estimation/ development of future laser ignition systems.
Technical Paper

Field Trials of Biodiesel (B100) and Diesel Fuelled Common Rail Direct Injection Euro-III Compliant Sports Utility Vehicles in Indian Conditions

2008-01-09
2008-28-0077
Biodiesel is being explored as a sustainable renewable fuel for vehicles in India due to mounting foreign exchange expenditure to import crude petroleum. Significant amount of research and development work is being undertaken in India to investigate various aspects of biodiesel utilisation in different types of engines. This study is an effort to jointly investigate the use of biodiesel (B100) in an unmodified BS-III compliant sports utility vehicle (SUV) by a consortium of academia (IIT Kanpur) and Industry (M&M) to realistically assess whether biodiesel is compatible with modern engine technology vehicles. Two identical vehicles were operated in tandem using biodiesel (B100) and mineral diesel (B00) respectively for 30,000 kilometers in field conditions. The lubricating oil samples were collected and detailed analysis for assessing the comparative effect of new fuel (B100) vis-à-vis mineral diesel was carried out.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Lubricating Oil Film Thickness between Piston Ring -liner Interface in an Engine Simulator

2008-01-09
2008-28-0071
The interface between the piston rings and cylinder liner play an important role in total frictional losses and mechanical wear of internal combustion engine and is increasingly coming under scrutiny as legislated particulate emission standards are getting more and more stringent. The capacitance method is used for measurement of minimum oil film thickness between piston ring and liner interface. Measurement of capacitance formed between the piston ring and a probe mounted flush in the liner provides an accurate means of determining the oil film thickness provided that the region between the probe and liner is flooded with oil and dielectric constant of the oil is known. This paper presents detailed design and measurement of lubricating oil film thickness using capacitive micro sensor in a non-firing engine simulator. Lubricating oil film thickness was found to vary between 0.2μm to 8μm in the non firing engine simulator.
Technical Paper

Ricebran Oil Biodiesel's Performance, Emission and Endurance Test on a CIDI Transport Engine

2008-01-09
2008-28-0066
Increased environmental awareness and depletion of resources are driving industry to develop alternative fuels that are environmentally more acceptable. Fatty acids esters (biodiesel) are known to be good alternative fuels. Due to economic reasons, the use of cheap raw materials for biodiesel production is preferred. In this case, ricebran oil, non-edible grade is used. Base catalyzed transesterification of ricebran oil is investigated and process parameters for ricebran biodiesel production are optimized. Various properties like viscosity, density, flash point, calorific value of biodiesel thus prepared are characterized as per ASTM D6751 and found comparable to mineral diesel. Steady state engine dynamometer test at 1800 rpm has been carried out to evaluate the performance and emission characteristics of a medium duty transportation DI diesel engine. Emission tests with all the fuel blends have also been carried out using European 13 MODE test (ECE R49).
Technical Paper

Combustion Characteristics of Jatropha Oil Blends in a Transportation Engine

2008-04-14
2008-01-1383
Vegetable oils are produced from numerous oil seed crops. While all vegetable oils have high energy content, most require some processing to assure safe use in internal combustion engines. Some of these oils already have been evaluated as substitutes for diesel fuels. However, several operational and durability problems of using straight vegetable oils in diesel engines are reported in the literature, caused by of their higher viscosity and low volatility compared to mineral diesel. In the present research, experiments were designed to study the effect of reducing Jatropha oil's viscosity by blending it with mineral diesel and thereby eliminating the effect of high viscosity and poor volatility on combustion characteristics of the engine. Experimental investigations have been carried out to examine the combustion characteristics of an indirect injection transportation diesel engine running with diesel, and jatropha oil blends with diesel.
Technical Paper

Performance, Emission and Combustion Characteristics of Biodiesel (Waste Cooking Oil Methyl Ester) Fueled IDI Diesel Engine

2008-04-14
2008-01-1384
Biodiesel (fatty acid methyl ester) is a non-toxic and biodegradable alternative fuel that is obtained from renewable sources. A major hurdle in the commercialization of biodiesel from virgin oil, in comparison to petroleum-based diesel, is its cost of production, primarily the raw material cost. Used cooking oils or waste cooking oils are economical sources for biodiesel production, which can help in commercialization of biodiesel. However, the products formed during cooking/frying (such as free fatty acids and various polymerized triglycerides) affect the transesterification reaction and the biodiesel properties. In present experimental investigations, wastecooking oil obtained from restaurant was used to produce biodiesel through transesterification process and the chemical kinetics of biodiesel production was studied. Biodiesel was blended with petroleum diesel in different proportions.
Technical Paper

Performance, Emission and Combustion Characteristics of Jatropha Oil Blends in a Direct Injection CI Engine

2009-04-20
2009-01-0947
Vegetable oils have energy content suitable to be used as compression ignition (CI) engine fuel. However, several operational and durability problems of using straight vegetable oils in CI engines are reported in the literature, which are primarily caused by their higher viscosity and low volatility compared to mineral diesel. The viscosity can be brought in acceptable range by (i) chemical process of transesterification, (ii) blending of oil with mineral diesel or (iii) by heating the vegetable oil using exhaust gas waste heat. Reduction of viscosity by blending or exhaust gas heating saves the chemical processing cost of transesterification. Present experimental investigations were carried out for evaluating combustion, performance and emission behavior of Jatropha oil blends in unheated conditions in a direct injection CI engine at different load and constant engine speed (1500 rpm).
Technical Paper

Particulate Characterization of Biodiesel Fuelled Compression Ignition Engine

2009-12-13
2009-28-0018
Environmental concerns have increased significantly world over in the past decade. Regulatory agencies are becoming increasingly concerned with particulate emissions as the health and environmental effects are getting understood better due to rapid development in instrumentation. Biodiesel is one of the most promising alternative diesel fuels, which is getting global acceptability among the automotive/ engine manufactures as well as users due to numerous benefits it offers over the conventional diesel. While much of literature is available on particulate emitted by diesel fuelled engine, little is known by particulate emissions from biodiesel fuelled compression ignition (CI) engine. This study concentrates on the characterization of particulate emissions from mineral diesel vis-à-vis biodiesel (B100) and its optimum blend (20%, B20) with mineral diesel.
Technical Paper

Novel Methodology to Utilise Neem (Azadirachta Indica) Oil in a Direct Injection Compression Ignition Engine: Performance and Emissions Characterization

2009-12-13
2009-28-0039
The world energy demand has witnessed uncertainties in two dimensions. The scarcity and depletion of conventional petroleum sources are causes of great concern worldwide. Combustion of fossil fuels has led to unprecedented rise in the global CO2 level, leading to global warming. Therefore, efforts are underway in several countries to search for suitable alternative fuels that are environment friendly. Vegetable oils of non-edible nature are such alternative fuels, which can form part of potential solution. Vegetable oils, due to their agricultural origin, are able to reduce CO2 emissions to the atmosphere along with import substitution of petroleum products In the present research, experiment were designed to study the effect of reducing Neem oil's high viscosity by increasing the fuel temperature and thereby its effect on combustion and emission characteristics of the engine.
Technical Paper

Comparative Evaluation of Turbochargers for High Horsepower Diesel-Electric Locomotives

2013-04-08
2013-01-0930
Indian Railways have a fleet of high-horsepower diesel-electric locomotives rated at 2310 kW. These high horsepower diesel-electric locomotives have evolved from original design of 1940 kW locomotives. Adoption of new design turbochargers was essential for this upgrading efforts and a series of new design turbochargers were evaluated on the engine test-bed before their use on the diesel locomotives. The objective was to increase engine power output, improve fuel efficiency and limit thermal loading. Test-bed evaluation of different turbochargers was carried out for comparing five different turbochargers. Each turbocharger had different size nozzle ring, diffuser, turbine blade assembly, impeller and inducer. The compressor maps of turbochargers were used to plot the engine load lines and to calculate surge margins. The tests involved measuring critical parameters for various combinations of engine speed and load for every turbocharger.
Technical Paper

Effect of Multiple Injections on Particulate Size-Number Distributions in a Common Rail Direct Injection Engine Fueled with Karanja Biodiesel Blends

2013-04-08
2013-01-1554
Use of alternative fuels, and reduction of particulate and NOx emissions are major challenges for making diesel engines environmentally benign. Measures adopted for reducing gravimetric particulate emissions necessarily always do not reduce particulate number concentration, which is strongly related with adverse health effects. Current emission norms in some parts of the world limit particulate number concentration along with particulate mass. In this scenario, it becomes important to investigate effect of fuel injection parameters and fuel injection strategies such as pilot injections on particulate size-number distribution. A single cylinder research engine is used to evaluate the effect of different fuel injection strategies and injection timings (for pilot and main injections) on particulate size-number distribution and total particulate numbers.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Cycle-by-Cycle Variations in CAI/HCCI Combustion of Gasoline and Methanol Fuelled Engine

2009-04-20
2009-01-1345
The development of vehicles continues to be determined by increasingly stringent emissions standards including CO2 emissions and fuel consumption. To fulfill the simultaneous emission requirements for near zero pollutant and low CO2 levels, which are the challenges of future powertrains, many research studies are currently being carried out world over on new engine combustion process, such as Controlled Auto Ignition (CAI) for gasoline engines and Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) for diesel engines. In HCCI combustion engine, ignition timing and combustion rates are dominated by physical and chemical properties of fuel/air/residual gas mixtures, boundary conditions including ambient temperature, pressure, and humidity and engine operating conditions such as load, speed etc.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigations of Gasoline HCCI Engine during Startup and Transients

2011-12-15
2011-01-2445
The homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion process is capable of providing both high ‘diesel-like’ efficiencies and very low NOx and particulate emissions. However, among several technical challenges, controlling the combustion phasing, particularly during transients is a major issue, which must be resolved to exploit its commercial applications. This study is focused on the experimental investigations of behavior of combustion timing and other combustion parameters during startup and load transients. The study is conducted on a gasoline fuelled HCCI engine by varying intake air temperature and air-fuel ratio at different engine speeds. Port fuel injection technique is used for preparing homogeneous mixture of gasoline and air. For fueling startup transient test, fuel injection was turned off, and the engine was motored for several minutes until the fire-deck, intake and exhaust temperatures stabilized.
Technical Paper

Macroscopic Spray Parameters of Karanja Oil and Blends: A Comparative Study

2012-01-09
2012-28-0028
Diesel engines are very efficient prime movers in their power range. Fuel is directly injected into the combustion chamber. Performance and emission characteristics of diesel engines are highly influenced by the fuel spray parameters and atomization of the injected fuel. As the emission regulations become stringent, it is very important to optimize the combustion in internal combustion engines for different fuels including alternative fuels. Spray visualization using optical techniques play a very important role to analyze macroscopic spray parameters and fuel atomization behavior. In the present experimental study, an important alternative CI engine fuel, Karanja oil and its blends with diesel have been investigated for their spray parameters and fuel atomization relative to mineral diesel. These parameters are different for the two fuels because of difference in the viscosity and density of the fuels.
Technical Paper

Comparative Study of PM Mass and Chemical Composition from Diesel and Biodiesel Fuelled CRDI SUV Engine

2012-01-09
2012-28-0012
Adverse health effects of particulate matter (PM) originating from diesel engine exhaust are largely attributed to the complex chemical composition of the exhaust species. This study was set out to characterize particulate emissions from a Euro-III-compliant modern automotive common rail direct injection (CRDI) sports utility vehicle (SUV) diesel engine operated at different loads at rated engine speed (1800 rpm), employing diesel and 20% biodiesel blends (B20) produced from Karanja oil. This study is mainly divided into two main sections, first one includes the gravimetric analysis in order to assess the amount of Benzene Soluble Organic Fraction (BSOF) and trace metals using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometer (ICPOES). The second section includes real-time measurements for Organic Carbon (OC), Elemental Carbon (EC) and total particle-bound Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs).
Technical Paper

An Experimental Investigation of Combustion, Emissions and Performance of a Diesel Fuelled HCCI Engine

2012-01-09
2012-28-0005
Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) is an advanced combustion concept that is developed as an alternative to diesel engines with higher thermal efficiency along with ultralow NOx and PM emissions. To study the performance of this novel technique, experiments were performed in a two cylinder engine, in which one cylinder is modified to operate in HCCI mode while other cylinder operates in conventional CI mode. The quality of homogeneous mixture of air and fuel is the key feature of HCCI combustion. Low volatility of diesel is a major hurdle in achieving HCCI combustion because it is difficult to make a homogeneous mixture of air and fuel. This problem is resolved by external mixture preparation technique in uses a dedicated diesel vaporizer with an electronic control system. All the injection parameters such as fuel quantity, fuel injection timing, injection delay etc., are controlled by the injection driver circuit.
Technical Paper

Laser Ignition of Single Cylinder Engine and Effects of Ignition Location

2013-04-08
2013-01-1631
Laser is emerging as a strong contender as an alternative ignition source for internal combustion (IC) engines. Short laser pulses of few nanoseconds duration delivered by a Q-switched laser are focused by a lens inside the engine cylinder containing combustible fuel-air mixture. If the peak intensity at the focal point exceeds threshold intensity level, breakdown of combustible gases occurs, which leads to plasma formation. If the energy of the spark generated by plasma is high enough, the mixture ignites. In this investigation, laser ignition (LI) was performed in a single cylinder engine at constant speed and wide open throttle conditions using CNG as fuel. Combustion behavior was recorded using a high speed data acquisition system. For laser ignition of the engine, a laser spark plug was designed and manufactured. Laser spark plug consists of combination of lenses and optical windows.
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