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Technical Paper

High-Speed PLIF Imaging for Investigation of Turbulence Effects on Heat Release Rates in HCCI Combustion

High-speed laser diagnostics was utilized for single-cycle resolved studies of the fuel distribution in the combustion chamber of a truck-size HCCI engine. A multi-YAG laser system consisting of four individual Nd:YAG lasers was used for planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) imaging of the fuel distribution. The fundamental beam from the lasers at 1064 nm was frequency quadrupled in order to obtain laser pulses at 266 nm suitable for excitation of acetone that was used as fuel tracer. Bursts of up to eight pulses with very short time separation were produced, allowing PLIF images with high temporal resolution to be captured within one single cycle event. The system was used together with a high-speed framing camera employing eight ICCD modules, with a frame-rate matching the laser pulse repetition rate.
Technical Paper

Investigation of the Early Flame Development in Spark Assisted HCCI Combustion Using High Speed Chemiluminescence Imaging

Auto-ignition with SI-compression ratio can be achieved by replacing some of the fresh charge by hot residuals. In this work an engine is run with a negative valve overlap (NVO) trapping hot residuals. By increasing the NVO, thus raising the initial charge temperature it is possible to investigate the intermediate zone between SI and HCCI as the amount of residuals is increased. Recent research has shown the potential of using spark assistance to aid gasoline HCCI combustion at some operating conditions, and even extend the operating regime into regions where unsupported HCCI combustion is impossible. In this work the influence of the spark is studied in a single cylinder operated engine with optical access. Combustion is monitored by in-cylinder pressure and simultaneous high speed chemiluminescence imaging. It is seen that even for large NVO and thus high residual fractions it is a growing SI flame that interacts with, and governs the subsequent HCCI combustion.
Technical Paper

Effect of Turbulence on HCCI Combustion

This paper presents large eddy simulation (LES) and experimental studies of the combustion process of ethanol/air mixture in an experimental optical HCCI engine. The fuel is injected to the intake port manifolds to generate uniform fuel/air mixture in the cylinder. Two different piston shapes, one with a flat disc and one with a square bowl, were employed to generate different in-cylinder turbulence and temperature field prior to auto-ignition. The aim of this study was to scrutinize the effect of in-cylinder turbulence on the temperature field and on the combustion process. The fuel tracer, acetone, is measured using laser induced fluorescence (LIF) to characterize the reaction fronts, and chemiluminescence images were recorded using a high speed camera, with a 0.25 crank angle degree resolution, to further illustrate the combustion process. Pressure in the cylinder is recorded in the experiments.
Technical Paper

Effect of Turbulence and Initial Temperature Inhomogeneity on Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Combustion

A 0.5 liter optical HCCI engine firing a mixture of n-heptane (50%) and iso-octane (50%) with air/fuel ratio of 3 is studied using large eddy simulation (LES) and laser diagnostics. Formaldehyde and OH LIF and in-cylinder pressure were measured in the experiments to characterize the ignition process. The LES made use of a detailed chemical kinetic mechanism that consists of 233 species and 2019 reactions. The auto-ignition simulation is coupled with LES by the use of a renormalized reaction progress variable. Systematic LES study on the effect of initial temperature inhomogeneity and turbulence intensity has been carried out to delineate their effect on the ignition process. It was shown that the charge under the present experimental condition would not be ignited without initial temperature inhomogeneity. Increasing temperature inhomogeneity leads to earlier ignition whereas increasing turbulence intensity would retard the ignition.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Boundary Layer Behaviour in HCCI Combustion using Chemiluminescence Imaging

A five-cylinder diesel engine, converted to a single cylinder operated optical engine is run in Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) mode. A blend of iso-octane and n-heptane is used as fuel. An experimental study of the horizontal boundary layer between the main combustion and the non-reacting surface of the combustion chamber is conducted as a function of speed, load, swirl and injection strategy. The combustion behaviour is monitored by chemiluminescence measurements. For all cases an interval from -10 to 16 crank angles after top dead center (CAD ATDC) in steps of one CAD are studied. One image-intensified camera observes the boundary layer up close from the side through a quartz cylinder liner while a second camera has a more global view from below to see more large scale structure of the combustion. The averaged chemiluminescence intensity from the HCCI combustion is seen to scale well with the rate of heat release.
Journal Article

Large Eddy Simulation and Experiments of the Auto-Ignition Process of Lean Ethanol/Air Mixture in HCCI Engines

Recent experiments and numerical studies have showed that piston geometry has a significant effect on the homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) process. There are two effects generated by the combustor geometry: the geometry affects the flow/turbulence in the cylinder; the geometry also affects the temperature stratification. The temperature stratification is more directly responsible for the observed alteration of the auto-ignition process. To clarify this issue further we present in this paper a study of two engines with the same geometry but difference ways of cooling. Measurement of the two engines - a metal engine and quartz piston engine, both with the same piston bowl geometry - is carried out. Large eddy simulation (LES) is used to simulate the flow, the temperature field and the auto-ignition process in the two engines. The fuel is ethanol with a relative air/fuel ratio of 3.3.
Technical Paper

Effect of Temperature Stratification on the Auto-ignition of Lean Ethanol/Air Mixture in HCCI engine

It has been known from multi-zone simulations that HCCI combustion can be significantly affected by temperature stratification of the in-cylinder gas. With the same combustion timing (i.e. crank angles at 50% heat release, denoted as CA50), large temperature stratification tends to prolong the combustion duration and lower down the in-cylinder pressure-rise-rate. With low pressure-rise-rate HCCI engines can be operated at high load, therefore it is of practical importance to look into more details about how temperature stratification affects the auto-ignition process. It has been realized that multi-zone simulations can not account for the effects of spatial structures of the stratified temperature field, i.e. how the size of the hot and cold spots in the temperature field could affect the auto-ignition process. This question is investigated in the present work by large eddy simulation (LES) method which is capable of resolving the in-cylinder turbulence field in space and time.
Technical Paper

Optical Diagnostics of Laser-Induced and Spark Plug-Assisted HCCI Combustion

HCCI (Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition), laser-assisted HCCI and spark plug-assisted HCCI combustion was studied experimentally in a modified single cylinder truck-size Scania D12 engine equipped with a quartz liner and quartz piston crown for optical access. The aim of this study was to find out how and to what extent the spark, generated to influence or even trigger the onset of ignition, influences the auto-ignition process or whether primarily normal compression-induced ignition remains prevailing. The beam of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (5 ns pulse duration, 25 mJ pulse energy) was focused into the centre of the cylinder to generate a plasma. For comparison, a conventional spark plug located centrally in the cylinder head was alternatively used to obtain sparks at a comparable location. No clear difference in the heat releases during combustion between the three different cases of ignition start could be seen for the fuel of 80/20 iso-octane/n-heptane used.
Technical Paper

Cylinder-to-Cylinder and Cycle-to-Cycle Variations at HCCI Operation With Trapped Residuals

A naturally aspirated in-line six-cylinder 2.9-litre Volvo engine is operated in Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) mode, using camshafts with low lift and short duration generating negative valve overlap. Standard port fuel injection is used and pistons and cylinder head are unchanged from the automotive application. HCCI through negative valve overlap is recognized as one of the possible implementation strategies of HCCI closest to production. It is important to gain knowledge of the constraints and limits on the possible operating region. In this work, the emphasis is on investigating how cycle-to-cycle and cylinder-to-cylinder deviations limit the operating region, how these effects change in different parts of the operating region and how they can be controlled. At low load the cycle-to-cycle phenomena cause periodic behavior in combustion timing; together with cylinder deviations this is found responsible for decreasing the operating regime.
Technical Paper

High-Speed LIF Imaging for Cycle-Resolved Formaldehyde Visualization in HCCI Combustion

High-speed laser diagnostics was utilized for single-cycle resolved studies of the formaldehyde distribution in the combustion chamber of an HCCI engine. A multi-YAG laser system consisting of four individual Q-switched, flash lamp-pumped Nd:YAG lasers has previously been developed in order to obtain laser pulses at 355 nm suitable for performing LIF measurements of the formaldehyde molecule. Bursts of up to eight pulses with very short time separation can be produced, allowing capturing of LIF image series with high temporal resolution. The system was used together with a high-speed framing camera employing eight intensified CCD modules, with a frame-rate matching the laser pulse repetition rate. The diagnostic system was used to study the combustion in a truck-size HCCI engine, running at 1200 rpm using n-heptane as fuel. By using laser pulses with time separations as short as 70 μs, cycle-resolved image sequences of the formaldehyde distribution were obtained.
Technical Paper

Reformed Methanol Gas as Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engine Fuel

Hydrogen has been proposed as a possible fuel for automotive applications. Methanol is one of the most efficient ways to store and handle hydrogen. By catalytic reformation it is possible to convert methanol into hydrogen and carbon monoxide. This paper reports an experimental investigation of Reformed Methanol Gas as Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine fuel. The aim of the experimental study is to investigate the possibility to run an HCCI engine on a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide, to study the combustion phasing, the efficiency and the formation of emissions. Reformed Methanol Gas (RMG) was found to be a possible fuel for an HCCI engine. The heat release rate was lower than with pure hydrogen but still high compared to other fuels. The interval of possible start of combustion crank angles was found to be narrow but wider than for hydrogen. The high rate of heat release limited the operating range to lean (λ>3) cases as with hydrogen.
Technical Paper

Hydrogen as Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engine Fuel

Hydrogen has been proposed as a possible fuel for automotive applications. This paper reports an experimental investigation of hydrogen as HCCI engine fuel. The aim of the experimental study is to investigate the possibility to run an HCCI engine on an extremely fast burning fuel such as hydrogen as well as to study the efficiency, the combustion phasing and the formation of emissions. The experiments were conducted on a single-cylinder research engine with a displacement volume of 1.6 litres and pancake combustion chamber geometry. Variation of lambda, engine speed, compression ratio and intake temperature were parts of the experimental setting. The engine was operated in Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) mode and as comparison also in Spark Ignition (SI) mode. Hydrogen was found to be a possible fuel for an HCCI engine. The heat release rate was extremely high and the interval of possible start of combustion crank angles was found to be narrow.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Unconventional Piston Movement on SI Engine Combustion and Emissions

A major trend in current automotive research is hybridization of the power supply. This combination of electrical machine and combustion engine results, in some hybridization topologies, in a total decoupling of the combustion engine from the transmission. When the engine is decoupled from the transmission a new degree of freedom arises in engine design. The piston movement does not have to follow an evenly rotating shaft any more. It can be altered by the generator to achieve a movement found to be better from the point of efficiency or environmental concerns. Modelling work showed a potential of lowered NO emissions if the expansion could be delayed. The experimental study, conducted in a two piston Alvar engine, showed that the state of the art electrical machine (EM) propelling one of the crankshafts was too weak to change the crankshaft speed in an extent to give the fast volume changes required to change the emissions of the internal combustion engine (ICE).
Technical Paper

Measurement of Knock and Ion Current in a Spark Ignition Engine with and without NO Addition to the Intake Air

Several studies have shown that NO has a strong influence on engine knock. This paper reports an experimental study that addresses the connection between SI engine knock and the level of nitric oxide, NO, in the intake manifold gas under various conditions of engine operation. Some theories explain the second ion-current peak as thermal ionisation of NO. Both temperature and NO concentration is of importance. By advancing the ignition angle the NO concentration can be increased, but the temperature is also increased. Addition of NO in the inlet manifold increases the NO concentration but has less effect on the temperature. SI engine experiments were conducted over a number of different ignition timings, air/fuel ratios, engine speeds and intake manifold pressures. The NO level in the intake manifold was altered from 100 to 1600 ppm, increasing the amount by doubling. The study confirms that there is an increasing tendency of early knock when the NO amount increases.
Technical Paper

Optical Diagnostics Applied to a Naturally Aspirated Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engine

Basic optical properties have been investigated in order to characterize the HCCI-combustion process. Basic optical properties of a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine have been investigated in order to characterize the combustion process. The absorption of light propagating through the combustion chamber has been spectrally resolved for four different fuels. Significant differences between the fuels could be detected. Complementary information could be obtained by recording spontaneous emission of radiation during combustion. Raman point measurements were used to quantify cycle-to-cycle variations of the equivalence ratio. The homogeneity of the charge was monitored by the use of two-dimensional tracer LIF. That method was also utilized to investigate the flame development. The experiments were performed in a six-cylinder, truck-sized engine with one cylinder modified to allow for optical access.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Charge Inhomogeneity on the HCCI Combustion Process

In-cylinder crank-angle resolved imaging of fuel and OH was obtained using planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) in a Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine. Investigations were carried out to ascertain the extent to which the combustion process in an HCCI engine is affected by the charge homogeneity. In the experiments, the heterogeneity of the charge was varied and the effect on the combustion process was monitored. The result shows a heterogeneous combustion with large spatial and temporal variations, even with a homogeneously premixed charge. It is therefore concluded that the charge inhomogeneity has a modest effect on the combustion process.
Technical Paper

Wavelet Analysis of In-Cylinder LDV Velocity Measurements

The object of this paper is to present a new way of analyzing in-cylinder velocity measurements. The technique is called Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) and it is similar to Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) with one important difference it is possible to obtain both time localized and frequency resolved information. This paper demonstrates the use of DWT calculations on in-cylinder LDV flow measurements for different combustion geometries in a natural gas converted truck engine. It will furthermore provide some information about how DWT can be used with in-cylinder measurements in the future.