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Technical Paper

Employing an Ionization Sensor for Combustion Diagnostics in a Lean Burn Natural Gas Engine

2001-03-05
2001-01-0992
An ionization sensor has been used to study the combustion process in a six-cylinder lean burn, truck-sized engine fueled with natural gas and optimized for low emissions of nitric oxides. The final goal of the investigations is to study the prospects of using the ionization sensor for finding the optimal operating position with respect to low NOx emission and stable engine operation. The results indicate that unstable combustion can be detected by analyzing the coefficient of variation (CoV) of the detector current amplitude. Close relationships between this measure and the CoV of the indicated mean effective pressure have been found during an air-fuel ratio scan with fixed ignition advance.
Technical Paper

Operating range in a Multi Cylinder HCCI engine using Variable Compression Ratio

2003-05-19
2003-01-1829
Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) is a promising part load combustion concept for future power train applications. Different approaches to achieve and control HCCI combustion are today investigated and compared, especially concerning operating range. The HCCI operating range for vehicle applications should at least cover contemporary emissions drive cycles. The operating range in terms of speed and load is investigated with a Naturally Aspirated (NA) four-stroke multi-cylinder engine with Port Fuel Injection (PFI). HCCI combustion control is achieved with Variable Compression Ratio (VCR) and inlet air preheating with exhaust heat. Both primary reference fuels and commercial gasoline are used in the tests. HCCI combustion with commercial gasoline is achieved over a load range from 0 to 3.6bar BMEP, and over a speed range from 1000 to 5000rpm. Maximum load is at 1000rpm and decreases with an approximately straight slope to zero at 5000rpm.
Technical Paper

Crank Angle Resolved HC-Detection Using LIF in the Exhausts of Small Two-Stroke Engines Running at High Engine Speed

1996-10-01
961927
In order to separate the HC-emissions from two-stroke engines into short-circuit losses and emissions due to incomplete combustion, Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) measurements were performed on the exhaust gases just outside the exhaust ports of two engines of different designs. The difference between the two engines was the design of the transfer channels. One engine had “finger” transfer channels and one had “cup handle” transfer channels. Apart from that they were similar. The engine with “finger” transfer channels was earlier known to give more short-circuiting losses than the other engine, and that behavior was confirmed by these measurements. Generally, the results show that the emission of hydrocarbons has two peaks, one just after exhaust port opening and one late in the scavenging phase. The spectral information shows differences between the two peaks and it can be concluded that the latter peak is due to short-circuiting and the earlier due to incomplete combustion.
Technical Paper

Demonstrating the Performance and Emission Characteristics of a Variable Compression Ratio, Alvar- Cycle Engine

1998-10-19
982682
This paper is a direct continuation of a previous study that addressed the performance and design of a variable compression engine, the Alvar-Cycle Engine [1]. The earlier study was presented at the SAE International Conference and Exposition in Detroit during February 23-26, 1998 as SAE paper 981027. In the present paper test results from a single cylinder prototype are reviewed and compared with a similar conventional engine. Efficiency and emissions are shown as function of speed, load, and compression ratio. The influence of residual gas on knock characteristics is shown. The potential for high power density through heavy supercharging is analyzed.
Technical Paper

Influence of Mixture Quality on Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition

1998-10-19
982454
The major advantages with Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition, HCCI, is high efficiency in combination with low NOx-emissions. The major drawback with HCCI is the problem to control the ignition timing over a wide load and speed range. Other drawbacks are the limitation in attainable IMEP and relativly high emissions of unburned hydrocarbons. But the use of Exhaust Gas Recycling (EGR) instead of only air, slows down the rate of combustion and makes it possible to use lower air/fuel ratio, which increases the attainable upper load limit. The influence of mixture quality was therefore experimentally investigated. The effects of different EGR rates, air/fuel ratios and inlet mixture temperatures were studied. The compression ratio was set to 18:1. The fuels used were iso-octane, ethanol and commercially available natural gas. The engine was operated naturally aspirated mode for all tests.
Technical Paper

Combustion Chambers for Natural Gas SI Engines Part 2: Combustion and Emissions

1995-02-01
950517
The objective of this paper is to investigate how the combustion chamber design will influence combustion parameters and emissions in a natural gas SI engine. Ten different geometries were tried on a converted Volvo TD102 engine. For the different combustion chambers emissions and the pressure in the cylinder have been measured. The pressure in the cylinder was then used in a one-zone heat-release model to get different combustion parameters. The engine was operated unthrottled at 1200 rpm with different values of air/fuel ratio and EGR. The air/fuel ratio was varied from stoichiometric to lean limit. EGR values from 0 to 30% at stoichiometric air/fuel ratio were used. The results show a remarkably large difference in the rate of combustion between the chambers. The cycle-to-cycle variations are fairly independent of combustion chamber design as long as there is some squish area and the air and the natural gas are well mixed.
Technical Paper

Low Load Limit Extension for Gasoline Compression Ignition Using Negative Valve Overlap Strategy

2018-04-03
2018-01-0896
Gasoline compression ignition (GCI) is widely studied for the benefits of simultaneous reduction in nitrogen oxide (NOX) and soot emissions without compromising the engine efficiency. Despite this advantage, the operational range for GCI is not widely expanded, as the auto-ignition of fuel at low load condition is difficult. The present study aims to extend the low load operational limit for GCI using negative valve overlap (NVO) strategy. The engine used for the current experimentation is a single cylinder diesel engine that runs at an idle speed of 800 rpm with a compression ratio of 17.3. The engine is operated at homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) and partially premixed combustion (PPC) combustion modes with the corresponding start of injection (SOI) at −180 CAD (aTDC) and −30 CAD (aTDC), respectively.
Technical Paper

Sensitivity Analysis of Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) for Control Purposes

2015-04-14
2015-01-0884
Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) is a promising advanced combustion mode for future engines. In order to investigate the sensitivity of PPC to exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rate, intake gas temperature, intake gas pressure, and injection timing, these parameters were swept individually at three different loads in a single cylinder diesel engine with gasoline-like fuel. A factor of sensitivity was defined to indicate the combustion's controllability and sensitivity to inlet gas parameters and injection timings. Through analysis of experimental results, a control window of inlet gas parameters and injection timings is obtained at different loads in PPC mode from 5 bar to 10 bar IMEPg load at 1200 rpm. To further study the PPC controllability with injection timing, main injection timing was adjusted to sustain steady combustion phasing subject to perturbation of inlet gas state.
Technical Paper

Effect of Pre-Chamber Volume and Nozzle Diameter on Pre-Chamber Ignition in Heavy Duty Natural Gas Engines

2015-04-14
2015-01-0867
It has previously been shown by the authors that the pre-chamber ignition technique operating with fuel-rich pre-chamber combustion strategy is a very effective means of extending the lean limit of combustion with excess air in heavy duty natural gas engines in order to improve indicated efficiency and reduce emissions. This article presents a study of the influence of pre-chamber volume and nozzle diameter on the resultant ignition characteristics. The two parameters varied are the ratio of pre-chamber volume to engine's clearance volume and the ratio of total area of connecting nozzle to the pre-chamber volume. Each parameter is varied in 3 steps hence forming a 3 by 3 test matrix. The experiments are performed on a single cylinder 2L engine fitted with a custom made pre-chamber capable of spark ignition, fuel injection and pressure measurement.
Technical Paper

An Advanced Internal Combustion Engine Concept for Low Emissions and High Efficiency from Idle to Max Load Using Gasoline Partially Premixed Combustion

2010-10-25
2010-01-2198
A Scania 13 1 engine modified for single cylinder operations was run using nine fuels in the boiling point range of gasoline, but very different octane number, together with PRF20 and MK1-diesel. The eleven fuels were tested in a load sweep between 5 and 26 bar gross IMEP at 1250 rpm and also at idle (2.5 bar IMEP, 600 rpm). The boost level was proportional to the load while the inlet temperature was held constant at 303 K. For each fuel the load sweep was terminated if the ignitibility limit was reached. A lower load limit of 15 and 10 bar gross IMEP was found with fuels having an octane number range of 93-100 and 80-89 respectively, while fuels with an octane number below 70 were able to run through the whole load range including idle. A careful selection of boost pressure and EGR in the previously specified load range allowed achieving a gross indicated efficiency between 52 and 55% while NOx ranged between 0.1 and 0.5 g/kWh.
Technical Paper

Flow Field Measurements inside a Piston Bowl of a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

2011-08-30
2011-01-1835
Combination of flow field measurements, shown in this paper, give new information on the effect of engine run parameters to formation of different flow fields inside piston bowl. The measurements were carried out with particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique in optical engine. Good set of results was achieved even though the feasibility of this technique in diesel engines is sometimes questioned. Main challenge in diesel engines is background radiation from soot particles which is strong enough to conceal the PIV signal. Window staining in diesel engine is also a problem, since very high particle image quality is needed for velocity analysis. All measurements were made in an optical heavy-duty diesel engine. Optical design of engine was Bowditch type [1]. The engine was charged and equipped with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). The exhaust gas level was monitored by oxygen concentration and the level was matched to former soot concentration measurements.
Technical Paper

Investigation and Comparison of Multi Cylinder Partially Premixed Combustion Characteristics for Diesel and Gasoline Fuels

2011-08-30
2011-01-1811
Partially Premixed Combustion is a concept able to combine low smoke and NOx emissions with high combustion controllability and efficiency. It is of interest to be able to utilize PPC in a large operating region in order to meet the Euro VI emission legislation without relying on NOx aftertreatment. This paper investigates the differences in PPC characteristics for three fuels; Diesel Swedish Mk 1, Low Octane Gasoline (70 Octane) and US Standard Gasoline (87 Octane). Engine operating conditions, combustion characteristics, emissions and efficiency are in focus. The experiments were carried out at a range of operating points on a Volvo MD13 which is a six-cylinder heavy-duty engine. At each operating point three combinations of EGR level and λ-value were evaluated. 1. High EGR/High λ, 2. High EGR/Reduced λ, and 3. Reduced EGR/High λ.
Technical Paper

Extending the Operating Region of Multi-Cylinder Partially Premixed Combustion using High Octane Number Fuel

2011-04-12
2011-01-1394
Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) is a combustion concept by which it is possible to get low smoke and NOx emissions simultaneously. PPC requires high EGR levels to extend the ignition delay so that air and fuel mix prior to combustion to a larger extent than with conventional diesel combustion. This paper investigates the operating region of single injection PPC for three different fuels; Diesel, low octane gasoline with similar characteristics as diesel and higher octane standard gasoline. Limits in emissions are defined and the highest load that fulfills these requirements is determined. The investigation shows the benefits of using high octane number fuel for Multi-Cylinder PPC. With high octane fuel the ignition delay is made longer and the operating region of single injection PPC can be extended significantly. Experiments are carried out on a multi-cylinder heavy-duty engine at low, medium and high speed.
Technical Paper

Reducing Throttle Losses Using Variable Geometry Turbine (VGT) in a Heavy-Duty Spark-Ignited Natural Gas Engine

2011-08-30
2011-01-2022
Stoichiometric operation of Spark Ignited (SI) Heavy Duty Natural Gas (HDNG) engines with a three way catalyst results in very low emissions however they suffer from bad gas-exchange efficiency due to use of throttle which results in high throttling losses. Variable Geometry Turbine (VGT) is a good practice to reduce throttling losses in a certain operating region of the engine. VTG technology is extensively used in diesel engines; it is very much ignored in gasoline engines however it is possible and advantageous to be used on HDNG engine due to their relatively low exhaust gas temperature. Exhaust gas temperatures in HDNG engines are low enough (lower than 760 degree Celsius) and tolerable for VGT material. Traditionally HDNG are equipped with a turbocharger with waste-gate but it is easy and simple to replace the by-pass turbocharger with a well-matched VGT.
Technical Paper

Influence of Inlet Pressure, EGR, Combustion Phasing, Speed and Pilot Ratio on High Load Gasoline Partially Premixed Combustion

2010-05-05
2010-01-1471
The current research focuses in understanding how inlet pressure, EGR, combustion phasing, engine speed and pilot main ratio are affecting the main parameters of the combustion (e.g. efficiency, NOx, soot, maximum pressure rise rate) in the novel concept of injecting high octane number fuels in partially premixed combustion. The influence of the above mentioned parameters was studied by performing detailed sweeps at 32 bar fuel MEP (c.a. 16-18 bar gross IMEP); three different kinds of gasoline were tested (RON: 99, 89 and 69). The experiments were ran in a single cylinder heavy duty engine; Scania D12. At the end of these sweeps the optimized settings were computed in order to understand how to achieve high efficiency, low emissions and acceptable maximum pressure rise rate.
Technical Paper

Unburned Hydro Carbon (HC) Estimation Using a Self-Tuned Heat Release Method

2010-10-25
2010-01-2128
An estimation model which uses the gross heat release data and the fuel energy to estimate the total amount of emissions and unburned Hydro Carbon (HC) is developed. Gross heat release data is calculated from a self-tuned heat release method which uses in-cylinder pressure data for computing the energy released during combustion. The method takes all heat and mass losses into account. The method estimates the polytropic exponent and pressure offset during compression and expansion using a nonlinear least square method. Linear interpolation of polytropic exponent and pressure offset is then performed during combustion to calculate the gross heat release during combustion. Moreover the relations between the emissions specifically HC and Carbon Monoxide (CO) are investigated. The model was validated with experimental data and promising results were achieved.
Technical Paper

Study of a Heavy Duty Euro5 EGR-Engine Sensitivity to Fuel Change with Emphasis on Combustion and Emission Formation

2010-04-12
2010-01-0872
A diesel engine developed for an international market must be able to run on different fuels considering the diesel fuel qualities and the increasing selection of biofuels in the world. This leads to the question of how different fuels perform relative to a standard diesel fuel when not changing the hardware settings. In this study five fuels (Japanese diesel, MK3, EN590 with 10% RME, EN590 with 30% RME and pure RME) have been compared to a reference diesel fuel (Swedish MK1) when run on three different speeds and three different loads at each speed. The experiments are run on a Scania 13l Euro5 engine with standard settings for Swedish MK1 diesel. In general the differences were not large between the fuels. NO x usually increased compared to MK1 and then soot decreased as would be expected. The combustion efficiency increased with increased RME contents of the fuel but the indicated efficiency was not influenced by RME except for at higher loads.
Technical Paper

Effects of Ethanol and Different Type of Gasoline Fuels on Partially Premixed Combustion from Low to High Load

2010-04-12
2010-01-0871
The behavior of Ethanol and seven fuels in the boiling point range of gasoline but with an Octane Number spanning from 69 to 99 was investigated in Partially Premixed Combustion. A load sweep was performed from 5 to 18 bar gross IMEP at 1300 rpm. The engine used in the experiments was a single cylinder Scania D12. To allow high load operations and achieve sufficient mixing, the compression ratio was decreased from the standard 18:1 to 14.3:1. It was shown that by using only 50% of EGR it is possible to achieve NOx below 0.30 g/kWh even at high loads. At 18 bar IMEP soot was in the range of 1-2 FSN for the gasoline fuels while it was below 0.06 FSN with Ethanol. The use of high boost combined with relatively short combustion duration allowed reaching gross indicated efficiencies in the range of 54 - 56%. At high load the partial stratified mixture allowed to keep the maximum pressure rise rate below 15 bar/CAD with most of the fuels.
Technical Paper

Combustion Chamber Geometry Effects on the Performance of an Ethanol Fueled HCCI Engine

2008-06-23
2008-01-1656
Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion is limited in maximum load due to high peak pressures and excessive combustion rate. If the rate of combustion can be decreased the load range can be extended. From previous studies it has been shown that by using a deep square bowl in piston geometry the load range can be extended due to decreased heat release rates, pressure rise rates and longer combustion duration compared to a disc shaped combustion chamber. The explanation for the slower combustion was found in the turbulent flow field in the early stages of the intake stroke causing temperature stratifications throughout the charge. With larger temperature differences the combustion will be longer compared to a perfectly mixed charge with less temperature variations. The methods used for finding this explanation were high-speed cycle-resolved chemiluminescence imaging and fuel tracer planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF), together with large eddy simulations (LES).
Technical Paper

Validation of a Self Tuning Gross Heat Release Algorithm

2008-06-23
2008-01-1672
The present paper shows the validation of a self tuning heat release method with no need to model heat losses, crevice losses and blow by. Using the pressure and volume traces the method estimates the polytropic exponents (before, during and after the combustion event), by the use of the emission values and amount of fuel injected per cycle the algorithm calculates the total heat release. These four inputs are subsequently used for computing the heat release trace. The result is a user independent algorithm which results in more objective comparisons among operating points and different engines. In the present paper the heat release calculated with this novel method has been compared with the one computed using the Woschni correlation for modeling the heat transfer. The comparison has been made using different fuels (PRF0, PRF80, ethanol and iso-octane) making sweeps in relative air-fuel ratio, engine speed, EGR and CA 50.
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