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Technical Paper

Developing a Compact Continuous-State Markov Chain for Terrain Road Profiles

2013-04-08
2013-01-0629
Accurate terrain models provide the chassis designer with a powerful tool to make informed design decisions early in the design process. It is beneficial to characterize the terrain as a stochastic process, allowing limitless amounts of synthetic terrain to be created from a small number of parameters. A continuous-state Markov chain is proposed as an alternative to the traditional discrete-state chain currently used in terrain modeling practice. For discrete-state chains, the profile transitions are quantized then characterized by a transition matrix (with many values). In contrast, the transition function of a continuous-state chain represents the probability density of transitioning between any two states in the continuum of terrain heights. The transition function developed in this work uses a location-scale distribution with polynomials modeling the parameters as functions of the current state.
Journal Article

Control Strategy for the Excitation of a Complete Vehicle Test Rig with Terrain Constraints

2013-04-08
2013-01-0671
A unique concept for a multi-body test rig enabling the simulation of longitudinal, steering and vertical dynamics was developed at the Institute for Mechatronic Systems (IMS) at TU Darmstadt. A prototype of this IMS test rig is currently being built. In conjunction with the IMS test rig, the Vehicle Terrain Performance Laboratory (VTPL) at Virginia Tech further developed a full car, seven degree of freedom (7 DOF) simulation model capable of accurately reproducing measured displacement, pitch, and roll of the vehicle body due to terrain excitation. The results of the 7 DOF car model were used as the reference input to the multi-body IMS test rig model. The goal of the IMS/VTPL joint effort was to determine whether or not a controller for the IMS test rig vertical actuator could accurately reproduce wheel displacements due to different measured terrain constraints.
Technical Paper

Yaw Stability Control and Emergency Roll Control for Vehicle Rollover Mitigation

2010-10-05
2010-01-1901
In this paper a yaw stability control algorithm along with an emergency roll control strategy have been developed. The yaw stability controller and emergency roll controller were both developed using linear two degree-of-freedom vehicle models. The yaw stability controller is based on Lyapunov stability criteria and uses vehicle lateral acceleration and yaw rate measurements to calculate the corrective yaw moment required to stabilize the vehicle yaw motion. The corrective yaw moment is then applied by means of a differential braking strategy in which one wheel is selected to be braked with appropriate brake torque applied. The emergency roll control strategy is based on a rollover coefficient related to vehicle static stability factor. The emergency roll control strategy utilizes vehicle lateral acceleration measurements to calculate the roll coefficient. If the roll coefficient exceeds some predetermined threshold value the emergency roll control strategy will deploy.
Journal Article

A Physics-Based Vehicle/Terrain Interaction Model for Soft Soil Off-Road Vehicle Simulations

2012-04-16
2012-01-0767
In the context of off-road vehicle simulations, deformable terrain models mostly fall into three categories: simple visualization of the deformed terrain only, use of empirical relationships for the deformation, or finite/discrete element approaches for the terrain. A real-time vehicle dynamics simulation with a physics-based tire model (brush, ring or beam-based models) requires a terrain model that accurately reflects the deformation and response of the soil to all possible inputs of the tire in order to correctly simulate the response of the vehicle. The real-time requirement makes complex finite/discrete element approaches unfeasible, and the use of a ring or beam -based tire model excludes purely empirical terrain models. We present the development of a three-dimensional vehicle/terrain interaction model which is comprised of a tire and deformable terrain model to be used with a real-time vehicle dynamics simulator.
Technical Paper

Further Analysis of Potential Road/Terrain Characterization Rating Metrics

2005-11-01
2005-01-3562
The U.S. Army uses the root mean square and power spectral density of elevation to characterize road/terrain (off-road) roughness for durability. This paper describes research aimed toward improving these metrics. The focus is on taking previously developed metrics and applying them to mathematically generated terrains to determine how each metric discerns the relative roughness of the terrains from a vehicle durability perspective. Multiple terrains for each roughness level were evaluated to determine the variability for each terrain rating metric. One method currently under consideration is running a relatively simple, yet vehicle class specific, model over a given terrain and using predicted vehicle response(s) to classify or characterize the terrain.
Technical Paper

All-Season Virtual Test Site for a Real-Time Vehicle Simulator

2004-10-26
2004-01-2644
A virtual, all-season test site for use in real-time vehicle simulators and mobility models was constructed of an Army firing range in Northern Vermont. The virtual terrain will mimic the terrain of our Virtual Data Acquisition and Test Site (VDATS) at Ethan Allen Firing Range (EAFR). The objective is to realistically simulate on- and off-road vehicle performance in all weather conditions for training and vehicle design for the US Army. To this end, several spatial datasets were needed to accurately map the terrain and estimate the state-of-the-ground and terrain strength at different times of the year. The terrain strength is characterized by terramechanics properties used in algorithms to calculate the forces at the vehicle-terrain interface. The performance of the real vehicles will be compared to the simulated vehicle performance of operator-in-the-loop and unmanned vehicles for validation of the simulations.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Potential Road/Terrain Characterization Rating Metrics

2004-10-26
2004-01-2640
The U.S. Army uses the root mean square and power spectral density of elevation to characterize road/terrain (off-road) roughness for durability. This paper describes research aimed toward improving these metrics. The focus is on taking previously developed metrics and applying them to mathematically generated terrains to determine how each metric discerns the relative roughness of the terrains from a vehicle durability perspective. Multiple terrains for each roughness level were evaluated to determine the variability for each terrain rating metric. One method currently under consideration is running a relatively simple, yet vehicle class specific, model over a given terrain and using predicted vehicle response(s) to classify or characterize the terrain.
Technical Paper

Real-time, Distributed, Unmanned Ground Vehicle Dynamics and Mobility Simulation

2002-03-04
2002-01-1178
A Vehicle Dynamics and Mobility Server (VDMS) is being developed by the U.S. Army to perform real-time high-fidelity simulation of robotic vehicle concepts. It allows a set of conceptual Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGVs) to be selected and configured for the purposes of evaluating their mobility performance in a simulated battlefield scenario. VDMS includes real-time ground vehicle models operating over high-resolution digital terrain. The models consist of three-dimensional multi-body vehicle dynamics, off-road vehicle-soil interaction, collision detection and obstacle negotiation code, and autonomous control algorithms. A minimally completed VDMS was used in an RDEC Federation Calibration Experiment (CalEx) in October 2001 to predict the mobility of ten robotic scout vehicles. This paper presents the rationale, requirements, design, and implementation of VDMS. It also briefly discusses other possible applications of VDMS and the future direction of VDMS.
Technical Paper

A Virtual Evaluation Suite for Military Ground Vehicle Dynamic Performance and Mobility

2002-11-18
2002-01-3049
The U.S. Army Tank Automotive Research Development and Engineering Center (TARDEC) and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) are improving modeling and simulation technologies in order to predict the performance of Army ground platforms with a high degree of confidence. In order to provide a framework within which to evaluate the simulation technologies and provide a measure of the progress of the effort, a suite of virtual test operating procedures are being implemented. This framework is called the Virtual Evaluation Suite (VES). It is applicable to the study of ground vehicle stability, handling, ride, mobility, and durability over all terrains under all weather conditions. Although developed in order to evaluate simulation technologies, the VES may be considered a simulation that could be used to exercise any ground platform model that meets the VES standard vehicle interface.
Journal Article

The Development of Terrain Pre-filtering Technique Based on Constraint Mode Tire Model

2015-09-01
2015-01-9113
The vertical force generated from terrain-tire interaction has long been of interest for vehicle dynamic simulations and chassis development. To improve simulation efficiency while still providing reliable load prediction, a terrain pre-filtering technique using a constraint mode tire model is developed. The wheel is assumed to convey one quarter of the vehicle load constantly. At each location along the tire's path, the wheel center height is adjusted until the spindle load reaches the pre-designated load. The resultant vertical trajectory of the wheel center can be used as an equivalent terrain profile input to a simplified tire model. During iterative simulations, the filtered terrain profile, coupled with a simple point follower tire model is used to predict the spindle force. The same vehicle dynamic simulation system coupled with constraint mode tire model is built to generate reference forces.
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