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Occupant and Vehicle Responses in Rollovers

During the past decade, there has been a steady increase in studies addressing rollover crashes and injuries. Though rollovers are not the most frequent crash type, they are significant with respect to serious injury and interest in rollovers has grown with the introduction of SUVs, vans, and light trucks. A review of Occupant and Vehicle Responses in Rollovers examines relevant conditions for field roll overs, vehicle responses, and occupant kinetics in the vehicle. This book edited by Dr. David C. Viano and Dr. Chantal S. Parenteau includes 62 technical documents covering 15 years of rollover crash safety, including field crash statistics, pre- and rollover dynamics, test procedures and dummy responses.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Rear Seat Sled Tests with the 5th Female Hybrid III: Incorrect Conclusions in Bidez et al. SAE 2005-01-1708

Objective: Sled test video and data were independently analyzed to assess the validity of statements and conclusions reported in Bidez et al. SAE paper 2005-01-1708 [7]. Method: An independent review and analysis of the test data and video was conducted for 9 sled tests at 35 km/h (21.5 mph). The 5th female Hybrid III was lap-shoulder belted in the 2nd or 3rd row seat of a SUV buck. For one series, the angle was varied from 0, 15, 30, 45 and 60 deg PDOF. The second series involved shoulder belt pretensioning and other belt modifications. Results: Bidez et al. [7] claimed “The lap belts moved up and over the pelvis of the small female dummy for all impact angles tested.” We found that there was no submarining in any of the tests with the production lap-shoulder belts. Bidez et al. [7] claimed “H3-5F dummies began to roll out of their shoulder belt at… 30 degrees. Complete loss of torso support was seen at 45 degrees without significant kinetic energy dissipation.”
Technical Paper

Influence of DISH, Ankylosis, Spondylosis and Osteophytes on Serious-to-Fatal Spinal Fractures and Cord Injuries in Rear Impacts

Objective: Seats have become stronger over the past two decades and remain more upright in rear impacts. While head restraints are higher and more forward providing support for the head and neck, serious-to-fatal injuries to the thoracic and cervical spine have been seen in occupants with spinal disorders, such as DISH (diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis), ankylosis, spondylosis and/or osteophytes that ossify the joints in the spine. This study addresses the influence of spinal disorders on fracture-dislocations and spinal cord injury in rear impacts with relatively upright seats. Methods: Twenty-two field accidents have been investigated in-depth where serious-to-fatal injuries of the thoracic and cervical spine have occurred in rear impacts with the seat remaining upright or slightly reclined and having a high and forward head restraint. The occupants are lap-shoulder belted, some with belt pretensioning and cinching latch plates.
Technical Paper

Quantification of Sternum Morphomics and Injury Data

Crash safety researchers have increased concerns regarding thoracic injury causation and the contributing factors among the elderly population. The objective of this study is two-fold (1) quantify the sternum morphomics as a function of age and (2) document sternum fracture trends using CT scans and crash data as a function of age. The morphomics analysis was extracted from 786 thoracic computed tomography (CT) scans from the University of Michigan Hospital to measure thoracic depth, sternum joint angle, thickness, and bone density. The sternum fractures were extracted from 62 International Center for Automotive Medicine (ICAM) crash cases, of which 22 cases had corresponding CT scans. The University of Michigan Internal Review Board (HUM00043599 and HUM00041441) approved the used of crash cases and CT scan data. Morphomic analysis showed the sternum thickness increased from youngest to oldest age groups. Thoracic depth increased, with the exception of the 60-74-year-old age group.