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Technical Paper

Development of an EVA Support Equipment System for Exploration Using ISS Lessons Learned

A new Extravehicular Activity (EVA) support equipment system was developed during the 1990’s for the International Space Station (ISS) to accommodate external maintenance. This was done in accordance with the definition of ISS as a pre-integrated truss and pressurized module architecture with externally located system components. An overview of the history of the development of this system is provided here. Definition of how this system is to be used now and in the future to maintain ISS is referred to generically as the Concept of Operations, or ConOps. A historical perspective of the ISS EVA maintenance ConOps is provided. The support equipment system and ConOps are continually evolving as ISS assembly and maintenance proceeds and the face and future of ISS is altered by changing realities within the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). A summary of how the support equipment system and ConOps has changed and is likely to further change is presented.
Technical Paper

EVA Concept of Operations for International Space Station Maintenance

An overview of the proposed operational methods for performing Extravehicular Activity (EVA) maintenance for the International Space Station (ISS) is provided. External maintenance of ISS will be required during assembly and will continue for at least ten years after assembly is complete. It is likely that the operational methodology for performing maintenance will evolve as more on-orbit ISS EVA experience is gained. However, an initial operational plan is necessary for timeline and tool development. Initial operational concepts outlining assumptions regarding how EVA operations will be conducted during maintenance of ISS after assembly complete are provided. These maintenance scenarios are designed to reduce overhead wherever possible in order to make the EVA operations more efficient. Also presented is a summation of orbital replacement unit (ORU) information as it pertains to the operational concept.
Technical Paper

International Space Station Extravehicular Activity Results to Date: Summary of Spacewalk Anomalies from Assembly Flight 2A through Expedition 4 U.S. EVA 1

The International Space Station (ISS) program has performed 27 United States (U.S.) led Extravehicular Activities (EVA) from December of 1998 through October of 2001. These spacewalks encompass the initial docking and outfitting of the Unity Node 1 to the Zarya Functional Cargo Block vehicle, through the addition of seven major components to the ISS. This document is an overview of the anomalies associated with the U.S. ISS spacewalks up to the first ISS Expedition Crew U.S. EVA on February 20, 2002. The EVA Group at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) is responsible for planning, training and flight controlling ISS EVAs. The EVA Group also document results for NASA management review. EVA results are presented here by dividing the various anomalies by type. Explanations and lessons learned are provided for anomalies relating to EVA tools, EVA tasks, Spacesuit and Airlock systems and ISS EVA actuated hardware.
Technical Paper

Development and Implementation of an Extravehicular Activity Skills Program for Astronauts

This report takes a comprehensive look at the ability to determine aptitude for Extravehicular Activity (EVA) of an Astronaut via an evaluation criterion. A detailed history of the EVA Skills Program and the ability to quantify EVA skills within the NASA community is presented as well as the explanation of how the program evolution was inevitable for ISS survival. It describes how the evaluation utilized within the Skills Program has become the EVA standard for instructing and evaluating the ability to perform an EVA. This report will identify the logical steps taken to emulate a real EVA. It will identify how these steps of performing an EVA tie into the evaluation process of the skills program. It will identify areas of concerns that need to be taken into consideration when utilizing this criterion.