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Technical Paper

Optimization Design of FoamIPillar for Head Impact Protection Using Design of Experiment Approach

This paper presents a method to obtain improved foam/pillar structural designs to help enhance occupant interior impact protection. Energy absorbing foams are used in this study with their thickness and crush strength being selected as primary design variables for optimization. The response surface techniques in the design of experiment are used in the optimization process. Head impact analyses are conducted by a CAE model with explicit, nonlinear, dynamic finite element code LS-DYNA3D. A baseline model is developed and verified by comparing the simulation results with the experimental data. Based on this model, the anticipated effects of stiffness of the pillar structure and the trim on the Head Injury Criterion (HIC) results are also assessed. The optimization approach in this study provides a comprehensive consideration of the factors which affect the HIC value.
Technical Paper

A Practical Approach for Cross-Functional Vehicle Body Weight Optimization

The goal of optimization in vehicle design is often blurred by the myriads of requirements belonging to attributes that may not be quite related. If solutions are sought by optimizing attribute performance-related objectives separately starting with a common baseline design configuration as in a traditional design environment, it becomes an arduous task to integrate the potentially conflicting solutions into one satisfactory design. It may be thus more desirable to carry out a combined multi-disciplinary design optimization (MDO) with vehicle weight as an objective function and cross-functional attribute performance targets as constraints. For the particular case of vehicle body structure design, the initial design is likely to be arrived at taking into account styling, packaging and market-driven requirements.
Technical Paper

Development Of A Practical Multi-disciplinary Design Optimization (MDO) Algorithm For Vehicle Body Design

The present work is concerned with the objective of developing a process for practical multi-disciplinary design optimization (MDO). The main goal adopted here is to minimize the weight of a vehicle body structure meeting NVH (Noise, Vibration and Harshness), durability, and crash safety targets. Initially, for simplicity a square tube is taken for the study. The design variables considered in the study are width, thickness and yield strength of the tube. Using the Response Surface Method (RSM) and the Design Of Experiments (DOE) technique, second order polynomial response surfaces are generated for prediction of the structural performance parameters such as lowest modal frequency, fatigue life, and peak deceleration value. The optimum solution is then obtained by using traditional gradient-based search algorithm functionality “fmincon” in commercial Matlab package.
Technical Paper

Lightweighting of an Automotive Front End Structure Considering Frontal NCAP and Pedestrian Lower Leg Impact Safety Requirements

The present work is concerned with the objective of design optimization of an automotive front end structure meeting both occupant and pedestrian safety requirements. The main goal adopted here is minimizing the mass of the front end structure meeting the safety requirements without sacrificing the performance targets. The front end structure should be sufficiently stiff to protect the occupant by absorbing the impact energy generated during a high speed frontal collision and at the same time it should not induce unduly high impact loads during a low speed pedestrian collision. These two requirements are potentially in conflict with each other; however, there may exist an optimum design solution, in terms of mass of front end structure, that meets both the requirements.
Technical Paper

Selection of Vehicle Prototypes for Rollover Sensor Calibration Tests using CAE-DOE

CAE has played a key role in development of the rollover safety technology by reducing the required number of prototypes. CAE-led Design Of Experiments (DOE) studies have helped in developing the process to minimize the number of CAE runs and to optimize use of the prototypes. This paper demonstrates the use of CAE/DOE for the design and optimization of rollover vehicle prototypes and also investigates effects of various factors in the selection of vehicle configuration for rollover sensor calibration testing. The process described herein has been successfully applied to vehicle programs. Modeling and analysis guidelines are also presented for CAE engineers to help in optimizing vehicle prototypes at program level.
Technical Paper

Crash Detection System Using Hidden Markov Models

This paper presents the design of a crash detection system based on the principles of continuous-mode Hidden Markov Models (HMM) with real-valued emission parameters. Our design utilizes log-likelihood for optimizing HMM parameters including the number of states in the model and the accelerometer crash-pulse buffer size resulting in lower costs and complexity of the crash detection system. Cross validation technique based on Jackknifing is utilized to estimate the crash pulse detection rate for a variety of crash events involving rigid as well as offset deformable barriers with head-on and oblique angle impacts. The system is simulated using Matlab and Simulink, and the proposed model is able to accurately classify crash-events within 10 ms from the time of the impact.