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Technical Paper

Comparison of Single Gear Tooth and Cantilever Beam Bending Fatigue Testing of Carburized Steel

The bending fatigue performance of gears, cantilever beam specimens, and notched-axial specimens were evaluated and compared. Specimens were machined from a modified SAE-4118 steel, gas-carburized, direct-quenched and tempered. Bending fatigue specimens were characterized by light metallography to determine microstructure and prior austenite grain size, x-ray analysis for residual stress and retained austenite measurements, and scanning electron microscopy to evaluate fatigue crack initiation, propagation and overload. The case and core microstructures, prior austenite grain sizes and case hardness profiles from the various types of specimens were similar. Endurance limits were determined to be about 950 MPa for both the cantilever beam and notched-axial fatigue specimens, and 1310 MPa for the single gear tooth specimens.
Technical Paper

Formability of Type 304 Stainless Steel Sheet

Punch-stretch tests to determine formability of type 304 stainless steel sheet were conducted using a hemispherical dome test. Sheets of 19.1 mm width and 177.8 mm width were stretched on a 101.6 mm diameter punch at punch rates between 0.042 to 2.12 mm/sec with three lubricant systems: a mineral seal oil, thin polytetrafluoroethelyne sheet with mineral seal oil, and silicone rubber with mineral seal oil. The resulting strain distributions were measured and the amount of martensite was determined by magnetic means. Increasing lubricity resulted in more uniform strain distributions while increased punch rates tended to decrease both strain and transformation distributions. High forming limit values were related to the formation of high and uniformly distributed martensite volume fractions during deformation. The results of this study are interpreted with an analysis of the effects of strain and temperature on strain induced martensite formation in metastable austenitic stainless steels.
Technical Paper

Carbon and Sulfur Effects on Performance of Microalloyed Spindle Forgings

Five heats of vanadium-microalloyed steel with carbon contents from 0.29% to 0.40% and sulfur contents from 0.031% to 0.110% were forged into automotive spindles and air cooled. Three of the steels were continuously cast whereas the other two were ingot cast. The forged spindles were subjected to microstructural analysis, mechanical property testing, full component testing and machinability testing. The microstructures of the five steels consisted of pearlite and ferrite which nucleated on prior austenite grain boundaries and predominantly on intragranularly dispersed sulfide inclusions of the resulfurized grades. Ultimate tensile strengths and room temperature Charpy V-notch impact toughness values were relatively insensitive to processing and compositional variations. The room temperature tensile and room-temperature impact properties ranged from 820 MPa to 1000 MPa (120 to 145 ksi) and from 13 Joules to 19 Joules (10 to 14 ft-lbs), respectively, for the various steels.
Technical Paper

Experimental Evaluation of Curl and Tensile Properties of Advanced High Strength Sheet Steels

The response of HSLA steel, 590R, and dual-phase steel, DP-600, to non-uniform deformation imposed in a laboratory Bending-Under-Tension (BUT) test apparatus was evaluated. Samples were deformed with both low and high back tension forces at bend angles of 45 and 90 degrees, and evaluated to determine the “side-wall curl”, i.e. the curvature in the sheet section in contact with the die. The results indicate that there are no consistent differences between the two steels, 590R and DP-600. It was found that back tension, tensile strength and sheet thickness were the primary factors affecting curl. The bend angle has an influence on curl, with the curl radius at a 90° bend angle being greater than the curl radius at a 45° bend angle.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Room Temperature Aging on Subsequent Bake-Hardening of Automotive Sheet Steels

Bake-hardening steels used for exposed auto-body panels provide low yield strengths before forming, and increased strength and dent resistance after the forming and paint-baking processes. Room temperature aging can alter the sheet properties before forming, after forming, or after baking. Knowledge of the evolution of mechanical properties is important, and the effects of room temperature and simulated room temperature aging (at 50°C and 100°C) on the yielding behavior and the bake hardening response of two different bake-hardening steel grades were studied. The steels included a low strength ultra-low carbon steel and a dual-phase steel with higher strength and greater bake-hardening index. Neither steel exhibited a substantial response to aging prior to tensile pre-straining, although both steels exhibited strength increases after either aging or baking following straining.
Technical Paper

Response to Hydrogen Charging in High Strength Automotive Sheet Steel Products

The influences of laboratory-induced hydrogen on the tensile deformation and fracture behavior of selected sheet steels including conventional DQSK and HSLA steels as well as newer DP and TRIP grades were evaluated. The effects of cold work, simulated paint baking, and natural aging were considered. Hydrogen effects were observable by increased flow stress, decreased ductility, altered neck geometry, and altered fracture mechanisms. Differences among the steels and conditions were observed and interpreted on the basis of microstructure, fracture behavior, and theories of hydrogen embrittlement.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Strain Rate on the Sheet Tensile Properties and Formability of Ferritic Stainless Steels

High strain rate sheet tensile tests (up to 300s-1) and Ohio State University (OSU) formability tests (up to an estimated strain rate of 10s-1) were performed to examine the effect of strain rate on the mechanical properties and formability of five ferritic stainless steels: HIGH PERFORMANCE-10™ 409 (HP-10 409), ULTRA FORM® 409 (UF 409), HIGH PERFORMANCE-10™ 439 (HP-10 439), two thicknesses of 18 Cr-Cb™ stainless steel, all supplied by AK Steel, and Duracorr®, a ferrite-tempered martensite dual-phase stainless steel supplied by Bethlehem Steel Corporation. Tensile results show that increasing strain rate resulted in increases in yield stress, flow stress, and stress at instability for all alloys tested. In addition, increases in uniform and total elongation were also found for each of the five alloys.