Refine Your Search

Topic

Search Results

Technical Paper

A Simulation Model for the Combustion Process of Natural Gas Engines with Pilot Diesel Fuel as an Ignition Source

2001-03-05
2001-01-1245
During the last years a great deal of efforts have been made to reduce pollutant emissions from Direct Injection Diesel Engines. The use of gaseous fuel as a supplement for liquid diesel fuel seems to be one solution towards these efforts. One of the fuels used is natural gas, which has a relatively high auto - ignition temperature and moreover it is an economical and clean burning fuel. The high auto - ignition temperature of natural gas is a serious advantage against other gaseous fuels since the compression ratio of most conventional diesel engines can be maintained. The main aspiration from the usage of dual fuel (liquid and gaseous one) combustion systems, is the reduction of particulate emissions. In the present work are given results of a theoretical investigation using a model developed for the simulation of gaseous fuel combustion processes in Dual Fuel Engines.
Technical Paper

A Simplified Model for the Spatial Distribution of Temperature in a Motored DI Diesel Engine

2001-03-05
2001-01-1235
The purpose of this paper is to present an alternative method to predict the temperature and flow field in a motored internal combustion engine with bowl in piston. For the fluid flow it is used a phenomenological model which is coupled to a computational fluid dynamic method to solve the energy conservation equation and therefore the temperature field. The proposed method has the advantage of simplicity and low computational time. The computational procedure solves the energy conservation equation by a finite volume method, using a simplified air motion model (estimating axial and radial velocities) to calculate the flow field. The finite volume discretization employs the implicit temporal and hybrid central upwind spatial differencing. The grid used contracts and expands following the piston motion, and the number of nodes in the direction of piston motion vary depending on the crank angle.
Technical Paper

A New Quasi-Three Dimensional Combustion Model for Prediction of DI Diesel Engines' Performance and Pollutant Emissions

2003-03-03
2003-01-1060
The fundamental understanding of mixture formation and combustion process taking place in a DI diesel engine cylinder is an important parameter for engine design since they affect engine performance and pollutant emissions. Multi-dimensional CFD models are used for detailed simulation of these processes, but suffer from complexity and require significant computational time. The purpose of our work is to develop a new quasi-dimensional 3D combustion model capable of describing the air fuel mixing, combustion and pollutant formation mechanisms, on an engine cycle by cycle basis, needing reasonably low computational time compared to CFD ones, while describing in a more fundamental way the various processes compared to existing multi-zone phenomenological models. As a result, a number of problems associated with the application of multi-zone models are resolved.
Technical Paper

An Integrated Transient Analysis Simulation Model Applied in Thermal Loading Calculations of an Air-Cooled Diesel Engine Under Variable Speed and Load Conditions

1997-02-24
970634
A comprehensive transient analysis simulation model is used for the calculation of diesel engine performance under variable speed and load conditions. The analysis includes a detailed description of engine subsystems under transient conditions, thus accounting for the continuously changing character of transient operation, simulating among others the fuel injection, transient mechanical friction, heat losses to the walls and governor operation. The results of engine performance, at every time step during the transient event, are used as inputs for the formulation of thermal boundary conditions, which are needed for the calculation in a parallel way of the thermal transients propagating inside the engine structure.
Technical Paper

Multi-Zone Combustion Modelling for the Prediction of Pollutants Emissions and Performance of DI Diesel Engines

1997-02-24
970635
In the past years various models have been proposed for the modelling of performance and pollutants emissions from DI diesel engines. These models range from complicated 3D detailed ones up to simple two zone phenomenological ones. The latter ones although simple offer solutions in engine study and are widely used due to their low computational cost and simplicity. In the present work a multi-zone model for direct injection diesel engines is presented together with its application on a direct injection diesel engine located at the authors laboratory. Multi-zone models usually fail to predict adequately both pollutants emissions and performance and thus focus mainly on pollutants emissions. Of course this is not acceptable since the formation of pollutants is strongly related to the combustion mechanism. In the present work an effort has been made to overcome this problem and predict both performance and emissions throughout the engine operating range.
Technical Paper

A Simulation Analysis of the Effect of Governor Technical Characteristics and Type on the Transient Performance of a Naturally Aspirated IDI Diesel Engine

1997-02-24
970633
A transient analysis simulation program is developed for studying the response of an indirect injection, naturally aspirated, diesel engine after a rapid increase in load when this is equipped with various types of indirect acting governors. Analytical expressions are presented for the better simulation of engine mechanical friction, inertia moments and heat loss to the walls under transient conditions, governor dynamics for both the sensing element and the servopiston, soot emissions and the fuel pump operation. Various types of governor sensing elements (i.e. mechanical, electrical, two-pulse) and feedbacks (i.e. unity and vanishing) for the servomechanism are studied. Explicit diagrams are given to show how each combination of governor type and technical parameters (i.e. mass and number of flyweights, geometrical dimensions, amplification factors) affects the speed response as well as the speed droop and the recovery period of the particular engine.
Technical Paper

Development and Validation of a 3-D Multi-Zone Combustion Model for the Prediction of DI Diesel Engines Performance and Pollutants Emissions

1998-02-23
981021
A three-dimensional multi-zone combustion model is developed for the description of the combustion mechanism inside the engine cylinder of direct injection diesel engines. Various multi-zone models have been proposed in the past for the prediction of DI diesel engine performance and emissions. These models offer an alternative tool if one wants to avoid the use of other more complicated and sophisticated flow models that require high computational times. Most of them have the disadvantage that they focus mainly on emissions, failing to predict at the same time engine performance adequately. In almost all multi-zone models the resulting fuel jet after injection, which is divided into zones, is assumed to be symmetrical around its axis. In the present work a different approach is followed. The fuel jet is divided into zones in the three dimensions overcoming the need for the previous symmetry assumption.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Instantaneous Cyclic Heat Transfer in the Combustion Chamber and Exhaust Manifold of a DI Diesel Engine under Transient Operating Conditions

2009-04-20
2009-01-1122
In this paper, the results are presented from the analysis of the second stage of an experimental investigation with the aim to provide insight to the cyclic, instantaneous heat transfer phenomena occurring in both the cylinder head and exhaust manifold wall surfaces of a direct injection (DI), air-cooled diesel engine. Results from the first stage of the investigation concerning steady-state engine operation have already been presented by the authors in this series. In this second stage, the mechanism of cyclic heat transfer was investigated during engine transient events, viz. after a sudden change in engine speed and/or load, both for the combustion chamber and exhaust manifold surfaces. The modified experimental installation allowed both long- and short-term signal types to be recorded on a common time reference base during the transient event.
Technical Paper

Parametric Study Based on a Phenomenological Model to Investigate the Effect of Post Fuel Injection on HDDI Diesel Engine Performance and Emissions-Model Validation Using Experimental Data

2008-04-14
2008-01-0641
A major challenge for researchers and engineers in the field of diesel engine development is the simultaneous reduction of both NOx and soot emissions from diesel engines to comply with strict future emission legislation. One of the promising internal measures that focus on the reduction of soot emissions is post fuel injection which does not have a serious effect on NOx emissions. The main parameters involved when using this technique are post fuel quantity and dwell angle between the main and the post fuel injection events. In the present work a detailed computational investigation has been conducted to determine the effect of post fuel injection on engine performance and pollutant emissions (NOx and soot). To this scope, a phenomenological multi-zone combustion model has been used, properly modified to take into account the interaction of post and main injected fuel amounts.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of the Effect of Fuel Composition on the Formation of Pollutants in Direct Injection Diesel Engines

1999-03-01
1999-01-0189
A great deal of research is taking place at the present time in the field of diesel engines, especially regarding the emission of gaseous pollutants and soot. This research is essential for engine manufacturers since it is difficult for diesel engines to meet current standards regarding soot and nitric oxide emissions. The problem will become even more severe when the new legislation will be applicable requiring a 50% reduction of existing levels. Many manufacturers and researchers feel that engines will be difficult to meet this criterion without the use of other techniques such as gas aftertreatment or newly developed fuels (low sulfur content, etc.). The aim of this research is to examine the effect of fuel composition and physical properties on the mechanism of combustion and pollutants formation.
Technical Paper

Development and Validation of a Detailed Fuel Injection System Simulation Model for Diesel Engines

1999-03-01
1999-01-0527
The fuel injection system of diesel engines is of great importance since it controls the combustion mechanism. The rate of injection and the speed of injected fuel are important parameters for engine operation, controlling the combustion and pollutants formation mechanisms. A fuel injection system simulation capable of predicting the performance of the injection system to a good degree of accuracy has been developed. The simulation is based on a detailed geometrical description of the injection system and in modeling each subsystem as a separate control volume. The simulation starts at the driving mechanism of the fuel pump and describes all parts of the system pump chamber, delivery valve, delivery chamber, connecting pipe and injector. The components of the system are put together and interact as they do in reality. From the cam geometry an analytical expression is derived that gives the pump piston lift as a function of the engine crank angle.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation to Determine the Effect of Fuel Aromatic Content on Gaseous and Particulate Emissions of IDI Diesel Engines

2000-03-06
2000-01-1172
The diesel engine is a thermal machine with very high efficiency when compared to other similar engines. But up to now its application for automotive purposes is limited due to the existing limits in power concentration, speed and noise. Up to now most diesel engines used for automotive applications are of the Indirect Injection type due to their ability to operate at relatively high rotational speeds and at low Air Fuel Ratios when compared to direct injection diesel engines. Currently the research is mainly concentrated to DI diesel engines due to their lower specific fuel consumption. Nevertheless it is not entirely clear that IDI diesel engines will be completely replaced. But if we consider in general the diesel engine regardless of its type, it is widely recognized that one of the major problems with their application on automobiles is the emission of particulates (smoke etc.).
Technical Paper

Available Strategies for Improving the Efficiency of DI Diesel Engines-A Theoretical Investigation

2000-03-06
2000-01-1176
The Diesel engine and especially the direct injection type one is considered to be one of the most efficient thermal engines known to man up to now. It has an efficiency that in some cases is 30 to 40% higher than its competitor the spark ignition engine. The efficiency of the direct injection diesel engine has been considerably improved during the last decade resulting to low fuel consumption and lower absolute values of pollutant emissions. If we consider the green house effect caused by the emitted CO2 it is revealed the environmental importance of high engine efficiency. In the present work a theoretical investigation is conducted using a detailed simulation model for engine performance prediction, to examine the possibilities for improving engine efficiency. The simulation model used is a complete open cycle model for the engine and its subsystems. Such phenomenological models are very suitable for the prediction of engine performance.
Technical Paper

Development of a Simulation Model for Direct Injection Dual Fuel Diesel-Natural Gas Engines

2000-03-06
2000-01-0286
During the last years a great deal of effort has been made for the reduction of pollutant emissions from direct injection Diesel Engines. Towards these efforts engineers have proposed various solutions, one of which is the use of gaseous fuels as a supplement for liquid diesel fuel. These engines are referred to as dual combustion engines i.e. they use conventional diesel fuel and gaseous fuel as well. The ignition of the gaseous fuel is accomplished through the liquid fuel, which is auto-ignited in the same way as in common diesel engines. One of the fuels used is natural gas, which has a relatively high auto-ignition temperature. This is extremely important since the CR of most conventional diesel engines can be maintained. In these engines the released energy is produced partially from the combustion of natural gas and from the combustion of liquid diesel fuel.
Technical Paper

Development of New 3-D Multi-Zone Combustion Model for Indirect Injection Diesel Engines with a Swirl Type Prechamber

2000-03-06
2000-01-0587
During the past years most fundamental research worldwide has been concentrated on the direct injection diesel engine (DI). This engine has a lower specific fuel consumption when compared to the indirect injection diesel engine (IDI) used up to now in most passenger cars. But the application of the direct injection engine on passenger cars and light trucks has various problems. These are associated mainly with its ability to operate at high engine speeds due to the very low time available for combustion. To overcome these problems engineers have introduced various techniques such as swirl and squish for the working fluid and the use of extremely high pressure fuel injection systems to promote the air-fuel mixing mechanism. The last requires the solution of various problems associated with the use of the high pressure and relatively small injector holes.
Technical Paper

Potential Benefits in Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Performance and Emissions from the Use of Variable Compression Ratio

2006-04-03
2006-01-0081
Worldwide demand for reduction of automotive fuel consumption and carbon dioxide emissions results in the introduction of new diesel engine technologies. A promising technique for increasing the power density of reciprocating engines, improving fuel economy and curtailing engine exhaust emissions is the use of variable compression ratio (VCR) technology. Several automotive manufacturers have developed prototype vehicles equipped with VCR gasoline engines. The constructive pattern followed to alter the compression ratio varies with the manufacturer. The implementation of VCR technology offers two main advantages: the reduction of CO2 emissions due to optimal combustion efficiency in the entire range of engine operating conditions and the increase of power concentration due to high boosting of a small engine displacement (i.e., engine downsizing).
Technical Paper

Single Fuel Research Program Comparative Results of the Use of JP-8 Aviation Fuel versus Diesel Fuel on a Direct Injection and Indirect Injection Diesel Engine

2006-04-03
2006-01-1673
During the last years a great effort has been made by many NATO nations to move towards the use of one military fuel for all the land-based military aircraft, vehicles and equipment employed on the military arena. This idea is known to as the Single Fuel Concept (SFC). The fuel selected for the idea of SFC is the JP-8 (F-34) military aviation fuel which is based upon the civil jet fuel F-35 (Jet A-1) with the inclusion of military additives possessing anti-icing and lubricating properties. An extended experimental investigation has been conducted in the laboratory of Thermodynamic and Propulsion Systems at the Hellenic Air Force Academy. This investigation was conducted with the collaboration of the respective laboratories of National Technical University of Athens and Hellenic Naval Academy as well.
Technical Paper

Comparative Evaluation of EGR, Intake Water Injection and Fuel/Water Emulsion as NOx Reduction Techniques for Heavy Duty Diesel Engines

2007-04-16
2007-01-0120
Despite the improvement in HD Diesel engine out emissions future emission legislation requires significant reduction of both NOx and particulate matter. To accomplish this task various solutions exist involving both internal and external measures. As widely recognized, it will be possibly required to employ both types of measures to meet future emission limits. Towards this direction, it is necessary to reduce NOx further using internal measures. Several solutions exist in that area, but the most feasible ones according to the present status of technical knowledge are EGR, water injection or fuel/water emulsions. These technologies aim to the reduction of both the gas temperature and oxygen concentration inside the combustion chamber that strongly affect NOx formation. However, there remain open points mainly concerning the effectiveness of water addition techniques and penalties related to bsfc and soot emissions.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Various Rich Combustion Techniques for Diesel Engines Using Modeling

2007-04-16
2007-01-0671
Considering future emission legislation for HD diesel engines it is apparent that it will be probably necessary to employ A/T devices to achieve them. The main problem concerns the simultaneous control of both NOx and particulate emissions at an acceptable fuel penalty. Concerning particulate matter the use of particulate traps is considered to be a proven technology while for NOx emission control; various solutions exist mainly being the use of SCR catalysts or LNT devices. But LNT traps require periodical regeneration, which is accomplished by generating reducing agents i.e. CO and H2. The present investigation focuses on the regeneration of LNT devices through the engine operating cycle. This can be achieved using two techniques, additional injection of fuel at the exhaust manifold (external measures) or operation at low lambda values in the range of 1.0 or lower (internal measures).
Technical Paper

Sensitivity Analysis of Multi-Zone Modeling for Combustion and Emissions Formation in Diesel Engines

2006-04-03
2006-01-1383
In the present work a sensitivity analysis is conducted using a multi-zone phenomenological model developed in the past by the author's, to estimate the effect of model's constants on engine performance and emissions. The constants used for this analysis are those embedded in the semi-empirical relations of the model, regarding air entrainment rate, combustion rate, ignition delay and evaporation rate. The model is applied on a heavy duty supercharged DI diesel engine and the effect of each of these constants on measurable engine parameters is defined. From the sensitivity analysis the relation between model constants and engine output data is derived. These results are used to define a constants determination procedure. The target is to define a limited number of adjustable constants so that the procedure can be of practical use. Following this, the calibration procedure is applied to determine the value of each constant, at various engine speeds and loads for the engine in question.
X