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Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation to Determine the Effect of Fuel Aromatic Content on Gaseous and Particulate Emissions of IDI Diesel Engines

The diesel engine is a thermal machine with very high efficiency when compared to other similar engines. But up to now its application for automotive purposes is limited due to the existing limits in power concentration, speed and noise. Up to now most diesel engines used for automotive applications are of the Indirect Injection type due to their ability to operate at relatively high rotational speeds and at low Air Fuel Ratios when compared to direct injection diesel engines. Currently the research is mainly concentrated to DI diesel engines due to their lower specific fuel consumption. Nevertheless it is not entirely clear that IDI diesel engines will be completely replaced. But if we consider in general the diesel engine regardless of its type, it is widely recognized that one of the major problems with their application on automobiles is the emission of particulates (smoke etc.).
Technical Paper

Available Strategies for Improving the Efficiency of DI Diesel Engines-A Theoretical Investigation

The Diesel engine and especially the direct injection type one is considered to be one of the most efficient thermal engines known to man up to now. It has an efficiency that in some cases is 30 to 40% higher than its competitor the spark ignition engine. The efficiency of the direct injection diesel engine has been considerably improved during the last decade resulting to low fuel consumption and lower absolute values of pollutant emissions. If we consider the green house effect caused by the emitted CO2 it is revealed the environmental importance of high engine efficiency. In the present work a theoretical investigation is conducted using a detailed simulation model for engine performance prediction, to examine the possibilities for improving engine efficiency. The simulation model used is a complete open cycle model for the engine and its subsystems. Such phenomenological models are very suitable for the prediction of engine performance.
Technical Paper

Development of New 3-D Multi-Zone Combustion Model for Indirect Injection Diesel Engines with a Swirl Type Prechamber

During the past years most fundamental research worldwide has been concentrated on the direct injection diesel engine (DI). This engine has a lower specific fuel consumption when compared to the indirect injection diesel engine (IDI) used up to now in most passenger cars. But the application of the direct injection engine on passenger cars and light trucks has various problems. These are associated mainly with its ability to operate at high engine speeds due to the very low time available for combustion. To overcome these problems engineers have introduced various techniques such as swirl and squish for the working fluid and the use of extremely high pressure fuel injection systems to promote the air-fuel mixing mechanism. The last requires the solution of various problems associated with the use of the high pressure and relatively small injector holes.
Technical Paper

Potential Benefits in Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Performance and Emissions from the Use of Variable Compression Ratio

Worldwide demand for reduction of automotive fuel consumption and carbon dioxide emissions results in the introduction of new diesel engine technologies. A promising technique for increasing the power density of reciprocating engines, improving fuel economy and curtailing engine exhaust emissions is the use of variable compression ratio (VCR) technology. Several automotive manufacturers have developed prototype vehicles equipped with VCR gasoline engines. The constructive pattern followed to alter the compression ratio varies with the manufacturer. The implementation of VCR technology offers two main advantages: the reduction of CO2 emissions due to optimal combustion efficiency in the entire range of engine operating conditions and the increase of power concentration due to high boosting of a small engine displacement (i.e., engine downsizing).
Technical Paper

Single Fuel Research Program Comparative Results of the Use of JP-8 Aviation Fuel versus Diesel Fuel on a Direct Injection and Indirect Injection Diesel Engine

During the last years a great effort has been made by many NATO nations to move towards the use of one military fuel for all the land-based military aircraft, vehicles and equipment employed on the military arena. This idea is known to as the Single Fuel Concept (SFC). The fuel selected for the idea of SFC is the JP-8 (F-34) military aviation fuel which is based upon the civil jet fuel F-35 (Jet A-1) with the inclusion of military additives possessing anti-icing and lubricating properties. An extended experimental investigation has been conducted in the laboratory of Thermodynamic and Propulsion Systems at the Hellenic Air Force Academy. This investigation was conducted with the collaboration of the respective laboratories of National Technical University of Athens and Hellenic Naval Academy as well.
Technical Paper

Use of Water Emulsion and Intake Water Injection as NOx Reduction Techniques for Heavy Duty Diesel Engines

Diesel engine manufacturers are currently intensifying their efforts to meet future emission limits that require a drastic reduction of NOx and particulate matter compared to present values. Even though several after-treatment techniques have been developed for tailpipe NOx reduction in heavy duty diesel engines, the in-cylinder control of NOx formation still remains of utmost importance. Various methods have been used to control NOx formation in diesel engines such as retarded injection timing and EGR providing each one of them very promising results. However, use of these techniques is accompanied by penalties in specific fuel consumption and exhaust soot. A promising technology for NOx reduction especially for heavy-duty diesel engines and mainly large scale ones is the addition of water to the combustion chamber to reduce peak combustion temperature that obviously affects NOx formation.
Technical Paper

Use of a Multi-Zone Combustion Model to Interpret the Effect of Injector Nozzle Hole Geometry on HD DI Diesel Engine Performance and Pollutant Emissions

A major challenge in the development of future heavy-duty diesel engines is the reduction of NOx and particulate emissions with minimum penalties in fuel consumption. The further decrease of emission limits (i.e., EPA 2007-2010, Euro 5 and Japan 05) requires new, advanced approaches. The injection system of DI diesel engines has an important role regarding the fulfillment of demands for low pollutant emissions and high engine efficiency. One of the injection system parameters affecting fuel spray characteristics, fuel-air mixing and consequently, combustion and pollutant formation is the geometry of the nozzle hole. A detailed experimental investigation was conducted at UPV-CMT using three different nozzle hole types: a standard, a convergent and a divergent one to discern the effect of nozzle hole conical shape on engine performance and emissions.
Technical Paper

Operational and Environmental Evaluation of Diesel Engines Burning Oxygen-Enriched Intake Air or Oxygen-Enriched Fuels: A Review

A method to curtail emissions of smoke and other pollutants from diesel engines is to enhance the oxygen supply to their combustion chamber. This can be accomplished by enriching either the intake air stream or the fuel stream with oxygen. Experimental studies concerning the oxygen-enrichment of intake air, have revealed large decrease of ignition delay, drastic decrease of soot emissions as well as reduction of CO and HC emissions while, brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) remained unaffected and increasing of power output is feasible. However, this technique was accompanied by considerable increase of NOx emissions. Experimental and theoretical studies with oxygenated fuels have demonstrated large decrease of soot emissions, which correlated well with the fuel oxygen content. Reduction of CO and HC emissions with oxygenated fuels was also obtained. However, penalties in both BSFC and NOx emissions have been observed with oxygenation of diesel fuels.
Journal Article

Effect of Fuel Chemical Structure and Properties on Diesel Engine Performance and Pollutant Emissions: Review of the Results of Four European Research Programs

During recent years, the deterioration of greenhouse phenomenon, in conjunction with the continuous increase of worldwide fleet of vehicles and crude oil prices, raised heightened concerns over both the improvement of vehicle mileage and the reduction of pollutant emissions. Diesel engines have the highest fuel economy and thus, highest CO2 reduction potential among all other thermal propulsion engines due to their superior thermal efficiency. However, particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions from diesel engines are comparatively higher than those emitted from modern gasoline engines. Therefore, reduction of diesel emitted pollutants and especially, PM and NOx without increase of specific fuel consumption or let alone improvement of diesel fuel economy is a difficult problem, which requires immediate and drastic actions to be taken.