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On-Road Evaluation of an Integrated SCR and Continuously Regenerating Trap Exhaust System

2012-06-18
Four-way, integrated, diesel emission control systems that combine selective catalytic reduction for NOx control with a continuously regenerating trap to remove diesel particulate matter were evaluated under real-world, on-road conditions. Tests were conducted using a semi-tractor with an emissions year 2000, 6-cylinder, 12 L, Volvo engine rated at 287 kW at 1800 rpm and 1964 N-m. The emission control system was certified for retrofit application on-highway trucks, model years 1994 through 2002, with 4-stroke, 186-373 kW (250-500 hp) heavy-duty diesel engines without exhaust gas recirculation. The evaluations were unique because the mobile laboratory platform enabled evaluation under real-world exhaust plume dilution conditions as opposed to laboratory dilution conditions. Real-time plume measurements for NOx, particle number concentration and size distribution were made and emission control performance was evaluated on-road.
Technical Paper

Geometric optimization of Nozzles for Inclined Injectors for DI Diesel Engines

1996-02-01
960868
Low emission heavy-duty diesel engines are increasingly utilizing four-valve designs with vertical central injectors. However, two-valve DI diesel engines with inclined injectors offset from the centerline of the piston bowl are likely to continue to be used in medium and light duty applications for some time. In such situations, designing of the hole-type nozzle is very difficult and may cause unavoidable back-drilling problems. The purpose of this paper is to solve back-drilling problems connected with hole-type nozzles and improve fuel-air mixing which leads to more efficient combustion. Based on geometric considerations, this paper introduces single-cone hole-type nozzles, double-cone hole-type nozzles, and the critical principal angles for hole-type nozzles. The single-cone hole-type nozzles and double-cone hole-type nozzles can meet requirements for height of the spray impingement points and spray orifice distribution angle at the same time.
Technical Paper

Diesel Trap Performance: Particle Size Measurements and Trends

1998-10-19
982599
Particle concentrations and size distributions were measured in the exhaust of a turbocharged, aftercooled, direct-injection, Diesel engine equipped with a ceramic filter (trap). Measurements were performed both upstream and downstream of the filter using a two-stage, variable residence time, micro-dilution system, a condensation particle counter and a scanning mobility particle sizer set up to count and size particles in the 7-320 nm diameter range. Engine operating conditions of the ISO 11 Mode test were used. The engine out (upstream of filter) size distribution has a bimodal, log normal structure, consisting of a nuclei mode with a geometric number mean diameter, DGN, in the 10-30 nm range and an accumulation mode with DGN in the 50-80 nm range. The modal structure of the size distribution is less distinct downstream of the filter. Nearly all the particle number emissions come from the nuclei mode, are nanoparticles (Dp < 50nm), and are volatile.
Technical Paper

Real Time Measurement of Volatile and Solid Exhaust Particles Using a Catalytic Stripper

1995-02-01
950236
A system has been developed that allows near real time measurements of total, volatile, and nonvolatile particle concentrations in engine exhaust. It consists of a short section of heated catalyst, a cooling coil, and an electrical aerosol analyzer. The performance of this catalytic stripper system has been characterized with nonvolatile (NaCl), volatile sulfate ((NH4)2 SO4), and volatile hydrocarbon (engine oil) particles with diameters ranging from 0.05-0.5 μm. The operating temperature of 300°C gives essentially complete removal of volatile sulfate and hydrocarbon particles, but also leads to removal of 15-25% of solid particles. This system has been used to determine total, volatile, and nonvolatile particle concentrations in the exhaust of a Diesel engine and a spark ignition engine. Volatile volume fractions measured in Diesel exhaust with the catalytic stripper system increased from 19-65% as the equivalence ratio (load) decreased from 0.64-0.13.
Technical Paper

Reducing Utility Engine Exhaust Emissions with a Thermal Reactor

1995-09-01
951762
A test reactor was designed for a 6.7 kW, 303 cc, single cylinder, air cooled, gasoline fueled engine. The reactor was very efficient at hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) reductions - with up to 99.9 and 98.6% removed, respectively. It had no effect on oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions. With the reactor, the engine met the California Air Resources Board (ARB) proposed Tier II emission standards. A factorial test was used to determine that A/F ratio and air injection rate significantly affected CO reduction efficiency whereas air injection location, ignition timing, and engine load did not. Relationships were established between CO reduction, air injection rate, and reactor core temperature.
Technical Paper

Influence of a Fuel Additive on the Performance and Emissions of a Medium-Duty Diesel Engine

1994-03-01
941015
This report describes tests of a fuel additive in a medium-duty, high-swirl, direct-injection diesel engine. The additive was found to have little influence on general combustion performance or on NOx emissions. On the other hand, it had a profound effect on particulate emissions. This was most clear under high load where particle emissions are highest. Here, when the engine was switched from running on the base fuel to the additive treated fuel, particle emissions at first increased and then fell to levels about 40% lower (by particle volume) than those initially produced by the base fuel. The additive had a long lasting effect. After running with the additive for about 25 hours, emission levels with the base fuel were only slightly higher than those with the additive treated fuel. We believe that the additive action is associated with a combination of cleaning and surface conditioning. More work should be done to understand the relative importance of these two mechanisms.
Technical Paper

Spark Ignition Engine Knock Detection Using In-Cylinder Optical Probes

1996-10-01
962103
Two types of in-cylinder optical probes were applied to a single cylinder CFR engine to detect knocking combustion. The first probe was integrated directly into the engine spark plug to monitor the radiation from burned gas in the combustion process. The second was built into a steel body and installed near the end gas region of the combustion chamber. It measured the radiant emission from the end gas in which knock originates. The measurements were centered in the near infrared region because thermal radiation from the combustion products was believed to be the main source of radiation from a spark ignition engine. As a result, ordinary photo detectors can be applied to the system to reduce its cost and complexity. It was found that the measured luminous intensity was strongly dependent upon the location of the optical sensor.
Technical Paper

Oxidation of Soot Agglomerates in a Direct Injection Diesel Engine

1992-02-01
920111
Carbon black particles, which morphologically and chemically simulate a diesel exhaust soot, were mixed with the intake air of a single-cylinder direct injection diesel engine to investigate the efficiency of their removal by oxidation in the combustion chamber. An aerosol generation system, which is capable of generating carbon black aerosol of a size distribution and mass flow rate comparable to those of the soot agglomerates, was developed first. The aerosol was then introduced into the engine which was operating on conventional fuel. Four methods were used to characterize the exhaust particles: an electrical aerosol analyzer, a condensation nuclei counter, a low volume filter, and a micro-orifice cascade impactor. The size distribution and concentration of the diesel soot particles in the lubricants were investigated by methods of photosedimentation and quantitative spectrophotometry, respectively.
Technical Paper

Size Distribution of Diesel Soot in the Lubricating Oil

1991-10-01
912344
Soot is the largest component of contaminants found in the diesel engine lubricating oil. The soot enters lubricating oil mainly through thermophoretic deposition on the cylinder wall. Although the mechanism is still not fully understood, it is generally accepted that soot particles promote engine wear, reducing engine component service life, fuel efficiency and performance. This problem will be further exacerbated when more and more diesel engines use EGR to reduce NOx emissions and when lubricating oil consumption is drastically reduced to control particulate emissions. In this study, lubricating oil samples were taken from 7 different operating diesel engines. The size distribution and concentration of the diesel soot particles in the lubricants were investigated by methods of photosedimentation and quantitative spectrophotometry. The size distributions were compared to those of soot particles in the exhaust.
Technical Paper

The Performance of an Electrostatic Agglomerator as a Diesel Soot Emission Control Device

1990-02-01
900330
A major problem with many soot emission control devices is the fact that they quickly become loaded with soot which must be removed by a controlled burning (regeneration) process. The need for regeneration greatly complicates such diesel particle emission control devices. In this paper, an electrostatic agglomerator (ESA) which efficiently collects diesel particles but does not require regeneration is described. The ESA is an electrostatic precipitator which is designed to collect and subsequently reentrain diesel soot particles. The collection and reentrainment processes results in growth of particle diameter from roughly 0.2 μm to larger than 1.0 μm. The agglomerated particles are large enough to be collected by a relatively simple inertial device, e.g., a cyclone separator. The collected particle may be either recycled to the engine or disposed of by other means. Electrostatic collection is made easier by the fact that diesel particles are charged by the combustion process itself.
Technical Paper

Particulate Emissions from Diesel Engines:Influence of In-Cylinder Surface

1990-02-01
900645
There is a growing body of evidence that in-cylinder surfaces play an important role in determining the nature and quantity of soot emitted by diesel engines. This paper describes recent experimental results which demonstrate the importance of both the deposition of soot on walls during the combustion process and its subsequent reentrainment during exhaust blowdown. Soot deposition was demonstrated both experimentally and theoretically. The principal mechanism of soot deposition during combustion is thermophoresis. Our results suggest that the gross rate of in-cylinder deposition in the indirect injection diesel engine is between 20 and 45 percent of the net soot emission rate. Thus, a significant fraction of the soot emitted may have been stored on combustion chamber surfaces and protected from oxidation. Further evidence of wall deposition and subsequent reentrainment has been obtained by making time-resolved measurements of soot concentrations in the exhaust.
Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Measurements of Soot Production in a Direct-Injection Diesel Engine

1988-02-01
880344
In-cylinder and exhaust soot mass measurements have been made on a single-cylinder conversion of a 4-cylinder, 2.8 1, high-swirl, direct-injection diesel engine using a sampling system which allows dumping, diluting, quenching, and collecting the entire contents of the cylinder on a time scale o£ about 1 ms. Experiments have been performed at engine speeds of 1,000 and 1,500, and equivalence ratios, ϕ, of 0.4 and 0.7. Soot mass first appears shortly after top dead center and reaches a peak between 15 and 30 crankangle degrees after top dead center (CAD ATDC). After reaching its peak value, soot concentration decreases with increasing crankangle and approaches exhaust levels by 40-60 CAD ATDC. The time lag between the start of combustion and the first appearance of soot increases with ϕ and ranges from 0.2 to 1 ms. The initial rate of soot formation ranges from 0.26 to 0.30 mg ms−1 and varies little with speed or ϕ.
Technical Paper

Particle Growth and Oxidation in a Direct-Injection Diesel Engine

1989-02-01
890580
Time resolved primary and agglomerate particle size distribution measurements have been made on samples obtained from within the cylinder and from the exhaust of a single-cylinder modification of a 2.8 liter displacement, four-cylinder, naturally-aspirated, high swirl, direct-injection diesel engine. The total cylinder sampling method has been used to sample, quench, and dilute the entire contents of the cylinder in about 1 ms. Experiments have been performed at an equivalence ratio of 0.7 and a speed of 1000 RPM. An electrostatic aerosol sampler and a transmission electron microscope have been used to determine primary and agglomerate particle size distributions for both in-cylinder and exhaust samples. An electrical aerosol analyzer and a diffusion battery followed by a condensation nucleus counter were used to further characterize the agglomerate size distributions of exhaust samples.
Technical Paper

An Ionization Probe Study of Small Engine Combustion Chambers

1976-02-01
760170
Combustion characteristics of an L-head engine combustion chamber have been examined using ionization probes and piezioelectric pressure transducers. The method describes how pressure rise rates, peak pressures, mean effective pressures, and flame arrival times were recorded. The flame arrival times were then used to find the position and shape of the flame front as a function of time. The influence of spark plug location on the above parameters was then examined for two different combustion chamber shapes.
Technical Paper

Further Studies with a Hydrogen Engine

1978-02-01
780233
This paper describes the performance and emissions of a hydrogen-fueled, spark-ignited engine. An electronic control device, designed to provide the engine with a timed injection of the fuel, is shown to give high mean effective pressures and high efficiencies. The oxides of nitrogen from the exhaust gases have been analyzed and the mechanism for their formation is reviewed. The paper further describes an experiment with traces of hydrocarbons added to the hydrogen in an attempt to explain any additional phenomena that may be taking place during the combustion, such as “prompt NO” which is known to occur in hydrocarbon flames only. As it turns out, such additions have a negligible effect on the NOx formation in the region investigated.
Technical Paper

Origin of the Response of Electrostatic Particle Probes

1987-02-01
870476
This paper describes an examination of the origin of the response of a real-time exhaust particle sensor. The sensor works by detecting the net electrical charge carried by diesel exhaust particles emitted during exhaust blow-down. The distribution of charge on these particles has been measured using an electrical mobility analysis system. The results show that the exhaust particles are highly charged and that their charge distributions are nearly symmetrical. The sensor signal results from a slight departure from this symmetry. The results suggest that most of the charge on the exhaust particles results from bipolar charging by flame ions during combustion, but that the net charge detected by the sensor results from surface interactions which some of the larger particles undergo during exhaust blowdown.
Technical Paper

A Review of CI Engine In-Cylinder Diagnostics for the Investigation of Soot Loading, Chemical Composition, and Temperature

1988-02-01
880515
Because of the more hostile environment in the compression ignition engine compared to the spark ignition engine, development and application of CI engine in-cylinder diagnostic methods have lagged those for SI engines. However, with more stringent federally mandated particulate and NOx standards which will go into effect in 1991 and 1994, the need for detailed information on the combustion processes in the cylinder is vital to controlling tailpipe emissions. The present paper contains a summary of the state-of-the-art techniques for determining in-situ species concentrations and profiles; particle concentrations, profiles, and size distributions; and temperature fields. Optical and physical probing methods, total cylinder dumping methods, and optical diagnostics applied for use in CI engine combustion chambers are discussed.
Technical Paper

Injection Timing and Bowl Configuration Effects on In-Cylinder Particle Mass

1992-09-01
921646
The formation of particles in the combustion chamber of a direct injection diesel engine has been studied with the use of the Total Cylinder Sampling Method. With this method, nearly the entire contents of the cylinder of an operating diesel engine can be quickly removed at various times during the combustion process. The particle mass and size distributions present in the sample can then be analyzed. If quenching of the combustion process is quick and complete, the resulting samples are representative of the particle mass and size distributions present in the cylinder near the time sampling begins. This paper discusses the effect of injection timing and piston bowl shape on the particle formation and oxidation. Example size distribution measurements are also shown. The particle concentrations in the cylinder were measured for three different injection timings with the standard piston installed in the engine.
Technical Paper

NO2 Formation in a Diesel Engine

1991-02-01
910231
The formation of NO2 in the cylinder of a diesel engine has been investigated using a total cylinder sampling technique and a simple kinetic model. Exhaust measurements of NO2 as a function of equivalence ratio and as function of time after engine start were made. Samples obtained by total cylinder sampling from an operating direct injection diesel engine showed NO2/NO ratios of 25 to 50%. This is much higher than the 1 to 3% which was measured in the exhaust. Simulations of the sampling process indicate that conversion of NO to NO2 is at least partially responsible for the high NO2/NO measurements. However, the processes which produce the NO to NO2 conversion during the sampling also occur during normal combustion. This may lead to high NO2 concentrations during the combustion cycle which are then lowered during the expansion to the measured exhaust concentrations.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Optimization of Spark Advance and Air-Fuel Ratio for a Natural Gas Engine

1989-09-01
892142
An adaptive control system which determines the optimum system parameters based on the engine response to changes in those parameters, has been tested as an ignition timing control system on several gaseous fueled engines. The changes in the MBT timing for speed, load, air-fuel ratio, and fuel type were explored. The ability of the control system to correct the timing for these parameters was demonstrated. An air-fuel ratio control based on the same technique is also discussed.
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