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Technical Paper

The Effect of Intake Air Temperature, Compression Ratio and Coolant Temperature on the Start of Heat Release in an HCCI (Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition) Engine

2001-12-01
2001-01-1880
In this paper, effect of intake air temperature, coolant temperature, and compression ratio on start of heat release (SOHR) in HCCI engines is investigated. The operational range with HCCI operation was determined experimentally using a CFR (Cooperative Fuels Research) engine with n-butane as the fuel. In-cylinder pressure was processed to evaluate SOHR. The effect of intake air and coolant temperature on SOHR increases as engine speed increases. In order to gain more insight into the combustion phenomena, SOHR was calculated using the theory of Livengood-Wu and compared with the experimental data. Dependence of SOHR on the equivalence ratio shows good correspondence between experiment and calculation. On the contrary, dependence on the intake air temperature and compression ratio shows poorer correspondence with predictions, especially under low engine speed. We interpret this as an indication of the importance of the active intermediate species that remain in the combustion chamber.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Numerical Results and Experimental Data on Emission Production Processes in a Diesel Engine

2001-03-05
2001-01-0656
Simulations of DI Diesel engine combustion have been performed using a modified KIVA-II package with a recently developed phenomenological soot model. The phenomenological soot model includes generic description of fuel pyrolysis, soot particle inception, coagulation, and surface growth and oxidation. The computational results are compared with experimental data from a Cummins N14 single cylinder test engine. Results of the simulations show acceptable agreement with experimental data in terms of cylinder pressure, rate of heat release, and engine-out NOx and soot emissions for a range of fuel injection timings considered. The numerical results are also post-processed to obtain time-resolved soot radiation intensity and compared with the experimental data analyzed using two-color optical pyrometry. The temperature magnitude and KL trends show favorable agreement.
Technical Paper

Effect of Injection Timing on Detailed Chemical Composition and Particulate Size Distributions of Diesel Exhaust

2003-05-19
2003-01-1794
An experimental study was carried out to investigate the effects of fuel injection timing on detailed chemical composition and size distributions of diesel particulate matter (PM) and regulated gaseous emissions in a modern heavy-duty D.I. diesel engine. These measurements were made for two different diesel fuels: No. 2 diesel (Fuel A) and ultra low sulfur diesel (Fuel B). A single-cylinder 2.3-liter D.I. diesel engine equipped with an electronically controlled unit injection system was used in the experiments. PM measurements were made with an enhanced full-dilution tunnel system at the Engine Research Center (ERC) of the University of Wisconsin-Madison (UW-Madison) [1, 2]. The engine was run under 2 selected modes (25% and 75% loads at 1200 rpm) of the California Air Resources Board (CARB) 8-mode test cycle.
Technical Paper

Effect of Fuel Composition on Combustion and Detailed Chemical/Physical Characteristics of Diesel Exhaust

2003-05-19
2003-01-1899
An experimental study was performed to investigate the effect of fuel composition on combustion, gaseous emissions, and detailed chemical composition and size distributions of diesel particulate matter (PM) in a modern heavy-duty diesel engine with the use of the enhanced full-dilution tunnel system of the Engine Research Center (ERC) of the UW-Madison. Detailed description of this system can be found in our previous reports [1,2]. The experiments were carried out on a single-cylinder 2.3-liter D.I. diesel engine equipped with an electronically controlled unit injection system. The operating conditions of the engine followed the California Air Resources Board (CARB) 8-mode test cycle. The fuels used in the current study include baseline No. 2 diesel (Fuel A: sulfur content = 352 ppm), ultra low sulfur diesel (Fuel B: sulfur content = 14 ppm), and Fisher-Tropsch (F-T) diesel (sulfur content = 0 ppm).
Technical Paper

Zero-Dimensional Soot Modeling

2003-03-03
2003-01-1070
A zero-dimension model of spray development and particulate emissions for direct-injection combustion was developed. The model describes the major characteristics of the injection plume including: spray angle, liquid penetration, lift-off length, and temperatures of regions within the spray. The model also predicts particulate mass output over a span of combustion cycles, as well as a particulate mass-history over a single combustion event. The model was developed by applying established conceptual models for direct injection combustion to numerical relations, to develop a mathematical description of events. The model was developed in a Matlab Simulink environment to promote modularity and ease of use.
Technical Paper

Mixture Preparation Effects on Ignition and Combustion in a Direct-Injection Spark-Ignition Engine

1996-10-01
962013
Planar instantaneous fuel concentration measurements were made by laser-induced fluorescence of 3-pentanone in the spark gap just prior to ignition in a direct-injection spark-ignition engine operating at a light load, highly stratified condition. The distribution of the average equivalence ratio in a circle of 1.9 mm diameter centered on the spark plug showed that a large fraction of the cycles had an equivalence ratio below the lean limit, yet acceptable combustion was achieved in those cycles. Further, weak correlation was found between the local average equivalence ratio near the spark plug and the time required to achieved a 100 kPa pressure rise above the motoring pressure, as well as other parameters which characterize the early stages of combustion. The cause for this behavior is assessed to be mixture motion during the spark discharge which continually convects fresh mixture through the spark gap during breakdown.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Motored and Fired Velocities in a Two Stroke Engine

1998-09-14
982012
Measurements were made of the in-cylinder fluid velocities in a crankcase compression, piston ported two-stroke engine under both motored and fired operating conditions to investigate the effect of combustion on the scavenging process. The engine was modified to allow optical access to the clearance volume and was operated in a burst fired manner, where the firing sequence was controlled by modulating the fuel delivered to the crankcase. The burst fired sequence consisted of 30 cycles, of which there were twelve consecutive cycles where fuel was injected into the crankcase. The engine was operated at a speed of 500 RPM, with a delivery ratio of 0.54, and a fuel-air equivalence ratio of 1.28. Laser Doppler Velocimetry was used to measure two components of the in-cylinder fluid velocity at five locations in the cylinder head cup during the burst fired operation of the engine.
Technical Paper

Emission Formation Mechanisms in a Two-Stroke Direct-Injection Engine

1998-10-19
982697
Engine tests were conducted to study the effect of fuel-air mixture preparation on the combustion and emission performance of a two-stroke direct-injection engine. The in-cylinder mixture distribution was altered by changing the injection system, injection timing, and by substituting the air in an air-assisted injector with nitrogen. Two injection systems which produce significantly different mixtures were investigated; an air-assisted injector with a highly atomized spray, and a single-fluid high pressure-swirl injector with a dense penetrating spray. The engine was operated at overall A/F ratios of 30:1, where stratification was necessary to ensure stable combustion; and at 20:1 and 15:1 where it was possible to operate in a nearly homogeneous mode. Moderate engine speeds and loads were investigated. The effects of the burning-zone A/F ratio were isolated by using nitrogen as the working fluid in the air-assist injector.
Technical Paper

Exploring the Limits of Improving DI Diesel Emissions By Increasing In-Cylinder Mixing

1998-10-19
982677
In the current investigation, the authors identified conditions under which increased in-cylinder turbulence can be used to improve diesel emissions. Two separate regimes of engine operation were identified; one in which combustion was constrained by mixing and one in which it was not. These regimes were dubbed under-mixed and over-mixed, respectively. It was found that increasing mixing in the former regime had a profound effect on soot emission. Fuel injection characteristics were found to be extremely important in determining the point at which mixing became inadequate. In addition, the ratio of the fuel injection momentum flux relative to that of the gas injection was found to be important in determining how increasing mixing would effect soot emissions.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Soot Formation During DI Diesel Combustion Using a Multi-Step Phenomenological Model

1998-10-19
982463
Predictive models of soot formation during Diesel combustion are of great practical interest, particularly in light of newly proposed strict regulations on particulate emissions. A modified version of the phenomenological model of soot formation developed previously has been implemented in KIVA-II CFD code. The model includes major generic processes involved in soot formation during combustion, i.e., formation of soot precursors, formation of surface growth species, soot particle nucleation, coagulation, surface growth and oxidation. The formulation of the model within the KIVA-II is fully coupled with the mass and energy balances in the system. The model performance has been tested by comparison with the results of optical in-cylinder soot measurements in a single cylinder Cummins NH Diesel engine. The predicted soot volume fraction, number density and particle size agree reasonably well with the experimental data.
Technical Paper

In Cylinder Augmented Mixing Through Controlled Gaseous Jet Injection

1995-10-01
952358
An investigation was performed on a direct injection diesel engine equipped with a gaseous injector to determine the effects of augmented mixing on emission characteristics. The gaseous injector introduced a jet of gas of particular composition in the cylinder during the latter portion of diesel combustion. This injector was controlled to inject the gas at specific engine timings and at various injection pressures. Engine experiments were done on a LABECO/TACOM single cylinder, direct injected, 1.2 liter, four stroke diesel engine. This engine was operated at 1500 rpm at an equivalence ratio of 0.5 with simulated turbocharging. The fuel injection timing was changed for some cases to accommodate the gaseous injection. Exhaust particulate emissions were measured with a mini-dilution tunnel. All other emissions data were measured on a REGA 7000 Real-Time Exhaust Gas Analyzer Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) system.
Technical Paper

Investigation of the Fuel Distribution in a Two-Stroke Engine with an Air-Assisted Injector

1994-03-01
940394
Results of experiments performed on a direct-injection two-stroke engine using an air-assisted injector are presented. Pressure measurements in both the engine cylinder and injector body coupled with backlit photographs of the spray provide a qualitative understanding of the spray dynamics from the oscillating poppet system. The temporal evolution of the spatial distribution of both liquid and vapor fuel were measured within the cylinder using the Exciplex technique with a new dopant which is suitable for tracing gasoline. However, a temperature dependence of the vapor phase fluorescence was found that limits the direct quantitative interpretation of the images. Investigation of a number of realizations of the vapor field at a time typical of ignition for a stratified-charge engine shows a high degree of cycle to cycle variability with some cycles exhibiting a high level of charge stratification.
Technical Paper

Cycle-by-Cycle Variations in Combustion and Mixture Concentration in the Vicinity of Spark Plug Gap

1995-02-01
950814
The correlations between IMEP and pressures at referenced crank angles have different trends for different equivalence ratios. A fiber optic spark plug was used to detect the initial flame development which was then used to analyze the combustion cyclic variation. Rayleigh scattering measurements were applied to detect the air-fuel mixture fluctuations in the vicinity of spark plug gap for both homogeneous and inhomogeneous mixture preparations in a spark ignition engine. The variation in mixture concentration in the vicinity of spark plug gap was not confirmed as a major contributor to cycle-by-cycle variation in combustion for any of the homogeneous mixture cases or for the stoichiometric and lean mixtures of port injection. However, a leaner mixture((ϕ=0.80) of port injection did correlate with the cyclic variation in combustion.
Technical Paper

Optical Measurements of Soot Particle Size, Number Density, and Temperature in a Direct Injection Diesel Engine as a Function of Speed and Load

1994-03-01
940270
In-cylinder measurements of soot particle size, number density, and temperature have been made using optical measurements in a direct injection diesel engine. The measurements were made at one location approximately 5 mm long and 1.5 mm wide above the bowl near the head. Two optical techniques were used simultaneously involving light scattering, extinction and radiation. An optical probe was designed and mounted in a modified exhaust valve which introduced a beam of light into the cylinder and collected the scattered and radiating light from the soot. The resulting measurements were semi-quantitative, giving an absolute uncertainty on the order of ± 50% which was attributed mainly to the uncertainty of the optical properties of the soot and the heterogeneous nature of the soot cloud. Measurements at three speeds and three overall equivalence ratios were made.
Technical Paper

Fuel Distribution Effects on the Combustion of a Direct-injection Stratified-Charge Engine

1995-02-01
950460
Simultaneous fuel distribution images (by shadowgraph and laser-induced fluorescence) and cylinder pressure measurements are reported for a combusting stratified-charge engine with a square cup in the head at 800 RPM and light load for two spark locations with and without swirl. Air-assisted direct-injection occurred from 130°-150° after bottom dead center (ABDC) and ignition was at 148° ABDC. The engine is ported and injection and combustion take place every 6th cycle. The complicated interaction of the squish, fuel/air jet, square cup, spark plug geometry and weak tumble gives rise to a weak crossflow toward the intake side of the engine with no swirl, but toward the exhaust side in the presence of strong swirl, skewing the spray slightly to that side.
Technical Paper

Direct Calibration of LIF Measurements of the Oil Film Thickness Using the Capacitance Technique

1997-10-01
972859
A direct calibration has been performed on laser-induced fluorescence measurements of the oil film in a single cylinder air-cooled research engine by simultaneously measuring the minimum oil film thickness by the capacitance technique. At the minimum oil film thickness the capacitance technique provides an accurate measure of the ring-wall distance, and this value is used as a reference for the photomultiplier voltage, giving a calibration coefficient. This calibration coefficient directly accounts for the effect of temperature on the fluorescent properties of the constituents of the oil which are photoactive. The inability to accurately know the temperature of the oil has limited the utility of off-engine calibration techniques. Data are presented for the engine under motoring conditions at speeds from 800 - 2400 rpm and under varying throttle positions.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Mixture Stratification on Combustion in a Constant-Volume Combustion Vessel

1998-02-01
980159
The role of mixture stratification on combustion rate has been investigated in a constant volume combustion vessel in which mixtures of different equivalence ratios can be added in a spatially and temporally controlled fashion. The experiments were performed in a regime of low fluid motion to avoid the complicating effects of turbulence generated by the injection of different masses of fluid. Different mixture combinations were investigated while maintaining a constant overall equivalence ratio and initial pressure. The results indicate that the highest combustion rate for an overall lean mixture is obtained when all of the fuel is contained in a stoichiometric mixture in the vicinity of the ignition source. This is the result of the high burning velocity of these mixtures, and the complete oxidation which releases the full chemical energy.
Technical Paper

Modeling the Effect of Engine Speed on the Combustion Process and Emissions in a DI Diesel Engine

1996-10-01
962056
Previous studies have shown that air motion affects the combustion process and therefore also the emissions in a DI diesel engine. Experimental studies indicate that higher engine speeds enhance the turbulence and this improves air and fuel mixing. However, there are few studies that address fundamental combustion related factors and possible limitations associated with very high speed engine operation. In this study, operation over a large range of engine speeds was simulated by using a multi-dimensional computer code to study the effect of speed on emissions, engine power, engine and exhaust temperatures. The results indicate that at higher engine speeds fuel is consumed in a much shorter time period by the enhanced air and fuel mixing. The shorter combustion duration provides much less available time for soot and NOx formations. In addition, the enhanced air/fuel mixing decreases soot and NOx by reducing the extent of the fuel rich regions.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Fuel Aromatic Structure and Content on Direct Injection Diesel Engine Particulates

1992-02-01
920110
A single cylinder, Cummins NH, direct-injection, diesel engine has been operated in order to evaluate the effects of aromatic content and aromatic structure on diesel engine particulates. Results from three fuels are shown. The first fuel, a low sulfur Chevron diesel fuel was used as a base fuel for comparison. The other fuels consisted of the base fuel and 10% by volume of 1-2-3-4 tetrahydronaphthalene (tetralin) a single-ring aromatic and naphthalene, a double-ring aromatic. The fuels were chosen to vary aromatic content and structure while minimizing differences in boiling points and cetane number. Measurements included exhaust particulates using a mini-dilution tunnel, exhaust emissions including THC, CO2, NO/NOx, O2, injection timing, two-color radiation, soluble organic fraction, and cylinder pressure. Particulate measurements were found to be sensitive to temperature and flow conditions in the mini-dilution tunnel and exhaust system.
Technical Paper

Data from a Variable Rate Shape High Pressure Injection System Operating in an Engine Fed Constant Volume Combustion Chamber

1990-10-01
902082
In current systems, for a given nozzle and injection pressure (pump speed), the shape of the injection rate is fixed and the injection timing is the only variable the engine designer can vary. For this non-interactive injection system, changing the injector nozzle (number and diameter of holes) will proportionately change the injection shape. New injection systems in which the rate of injection is a controlled variable are being developed. Results from one such injector, called the UCORS (Universal Combustion Optimization and Rate Shaping), are reported in this paper. The system can dynamically control its injection rate shape by controlling the position and size of a pilot injection relative to the main injection. Data and analysis from an out-of-engine and combustion chamber study of the UCORS injection system are presented.
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