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Technical Paper

Instrument for Field Monitoring of Carboxylate Coolants and Heat-Exchange Fluids

2000-06-19
2000-01-1978
For several years now, organic acid based coolants and heat exchange fluids have been introduced on the automotive and industrial market place. The organic acid based coolants provide improved high temperature aluminum corrosion protection and longer drain intervals when compared to traditional coolants. In order to evaluate the organic acid based coolant quality in the field; the end user needs to be able to check several physico-chemical parameters of the coolant. First of all the amount of carboxylate based inhibitors should be determined because the customers can top the system with water. As a result the carboxylates can drop under the minimum required inhibitor level.
Technical Paper

Extended Life Carboxylate Coolant Compatibility with Other Coolant Technologies - Examining the Data

2000-06-19
2000-01-1977
Previous studies examined the effect of low levels of silicate (∼<75ppm Si) on hot aluminum corrosion protection. The corrosion protection provided by different coolant technologies was evaluated at different silicate levels. The results indicated that small amounts of silicate have a negative effect on the corrosion protection of aluminum. This work will examine these results and evaluate the effectiveness of different laboratory tests for determining coolant “compatibility.” Results will be examined from several bench and fleet tests showing the effect of coolant mixing on the corrosion rates in various environments. The bench test results will include laboratory glassware and dynamic tests that have been used historically to evaluate coolant compatibility. Differences between the test methods will also be evaluated to determine the relevance of each test procedure in light of the fleet observations.
Technical Paper

Coolant Pump Failure Rates as a Function of Coolant Type and Formulation

1994-03-01
940768
Automobile coolant pump failure rates have been observed to be influenced by the coolant inhibitor package. A fleet test consisting of 196 1991 Ford Crown Victoria taxi cabs was utilized to test six coolant formulations. Four of the test formulations were monobasic/dibasic organic acid technology coolants and two were traditional technology coolants containing nitrate, phosphate, and silicate. Coolant pump failure rates were monitored as a function of mileage. Results indicate that the service life of coolant pumps for those systems employing organic acid technology coolants was significantly greater than those systems utilizing traditional inhibitor technology coolants.
Technical Paper

A Compatibility Study of Mixtures of a Monoacid/Dibasic Acid Coolant and a Traditional Nitrite-Free Coolant

1994-03-01
940769
Mixtures of a novel corrosion inhibitor, based on the synergistic combination of aliphatic mono- and dibasic acids with a traditional coolant have been evaluated in: a stability test an electrochemical test the ASTM D 1384 Glassware Corrosion Test the ASTM D 4340 Aluminum Heat-Rejection Test a Dynamic Heat-Transfer Test. This paper discusses the results of these tests and the relevance of the tests in assessing the performance of the coolant mixtures. Recommendations are made to the selection of methods that provide significant information on coolant compatibility.
Technical Paper

Performance of Organic Acid Based Coolants in Heavy Duty Applications

1996-02-01
960644
Coolant formulations based on organic acid corrosion inhibitor technology have been tested in over 180 heavy duty engines for a total of more than 50 million kilometers. This testing has been used to document long life coolant performance in various engine types from four major engine manufacturers. Inspections of engines using organic acid based coolant (with no supplemental coolant additive) for up to 610,000 kilometers showed excellent protection of metal engine components. Improved protection was observed against cylinder liner, water pump, and aluminum spacer deck corrosion. In addition, data accumulated from this testing were used to develop depletion rate curves for long life coolant corrosion inhibitors, including tolyltriazole and nitrite. Nitrite was observed to deplete less rapidly in long life coolants than in conventional formulations.
Technical Paper

Long Life Performance of Carboxylic Acid Based Coolants

1994-03-01
940500
An inhibitor package which is silicate-, nitrate-, borate- and phosphate-free has been developed as the basis for a world-wide automotive coolant formulation. The formulation contains aliphatic mono- and dicarboxylic acids and tolyltriazole as the sole inhibitors. Formulations containing carboxylic acid inhibitors have been studied in ASTM bench tests and found to sufficiently protect all prevalent cooling system metals. In addition, fleet tests have shown that carboxylic acid inhibitors deplete much more slowly than conventional inhibitors, making possible a much longer life coolant. Results from laboratory tests which simulate extended usage indicated that carboxylic acid-containing coolants have a significantly longer life span for the protection of all cooling system metals. Finally, the carboxylic acid/tolyltriazole inhibitor package is completely adaptable to a propylene glycol base.
Technical Paper

Corrosion Mechanism of High Lead Solder and Correlation to Dissolved Oxygen

1994-03-01
940497
High lead solder coupons are frequently tested in ASTM D 1384-87 and D 2570-91 tests to determine the corrosion protection provided by engine coolants. In contrast to 70/30 solder, high lead solder is often observed to show relatively high corrosion rates in D 1384-87 testing. Surprisingly, the high lead solder corrosion rates tend to be lower in the D 2570-91 test, despite the longer duration of this test. The basis of this effect has been investigated in different coolant formulations and in both ethylene glycol and propylene glycol. The corrosion of high lead solder was found to be directly related to the presence of oxygen in the D 1384-87 test. Replacement of the air purge with a nitrogen purge significantly reduced the corrosion rate of high lead solder in inhibited coolants. These results are interpreted in terms of the solder composition.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Silicate Content in Engine Coolants on the Corrosion Protection of Aluminum Heat-Rejecting Surfaces

1994-03-01
940498
The effect of small amounts of silicate on coolant performance has been studied. The corrosion protection provided by different coolant technologies was evaluated for different silicate contents. This work includes results from electrochemical tests and static and dynamic heat-rejecting tests on aluminum surfaces. The results indicate that small amounts of silicate have a negative effect on the corrosion protection of aluminum. Depletion of silicates can therefor be expected to affect aluminum heat-rejecting surfaces. The use of carboxylic acid corrosion inhibitors can overcome this problem.
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