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Technical Paper

Development of a Desulfurization Strategy for a NOx Adsorber Catalyst System

2001-03-05
2001-01-0510
The aggressive reduction of future diesel engine NOx emission limits forces the heavy- and light-duty diesel engine manufacturers to develop means to comply with stringent legislation. As a result, different exhaust emission control technologies applicable to NOx have been the subject of many investigations. One of these systems is the NOx adsorber catalyst, which has shown high NOx conversion rates during previous investigations with acceptable fuel consumption penalties. In addition, the NOx adsorber catalyst does not require a secondary on-board reductant. However, the NOx adsorber catalyst also represents the most sulfur sensitive emissions control device currently under investigation for advanced NOx control. To remove the sulfur introduced into the system through the diesel fuel and stored on the catalyst sites during operation, specific regeneration strategies and boundary conditions were investigated and developed.
Technical Paper

Novel Approach to Integration of Turbocompounding, Electrification and Supercharging Through Use of Planetary Gear System

2018-04-03
2018-01-0887
Technologies that provide potential for significant improvements in engine efficiency include, engine downsizing/downspeeding (enabled by advanced boosting systems such as an electrically driven compressor), waste heat recovery through turbocompounding or organic Rankine cycle and 48 V mild hybridization. FEV’s Integrated Turbocompounding/Waste Heat Recovery (WHR), Electrification and Supercharging (FEV-ITES) is a novel approach for integration of these technologies in a single unit. This approach provides a reduced cost, reduced space claim and an increase in engine efficiency, when compared to the independent integration of each of these technologies. This approach is enabled through the application of a planetary gear system. Specifically, a secondary compressor is connected to the ring gear, a turbocompounding turbine or organic Rankine cycle (ORC) expander is connected to the sun gear, and an electric motor/generator is connected to the carrier gear.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Computational Analysis of Diesel-Natural Gas RCCI Combustion in Heavy-Duty Engines

2015-04-14
2015-01-0849
Substitution of diesel fuel with natural gas in heavy-duty diesel engines offers significant advantages in terms of operating cost, as well as NOx, PM emissions and greenhouse gas emissions. However, the challenges of high THC and CO emissions, combustion stability, exhaust temperatures and pressure rise rates limit the substitution levels across the engine operating map and necessitate an optimized combustion strategy. Reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) combustion has shown promise in regard to improving combustion efficiency at low and medium loads and simultaneously reducing NOx emissions at higher loads. RCCI combustion exploits the difference in reactivity between two fuels by introducing a less reactive fuel, such as natural gas, along with air during the intake stroke and igniting the air-CNG mixture by injecting a higher reactivity fuel, such as diesel, later in the compression stroke.
Technical Paper

Fuel Effects on Low Temperature Combustion in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine

2010-04-12
2010-01-1122
Effects of six different fuels on low temperature premixed compression ignition (PCI) combustion were experimentally investigated in this paper with a light-duty HSDI engine. The PCI combustion concept reduces NOx and smoke emissions simultaneously by low temperature and premixed combustion, respectively. To achieve low temperature and premixed combustion, the ignition delay is prolonged and the injection duration is shortened. Six fuels were chosen to examine the influence of cetane number (CN) and other fuel properties on low temperature PCI combustion. The fuel selection also included a pure Gas- to-Liquid (GTL) fuel and a blend of base diesel and 20% soy based biodiesel (B20). Fuel effects were studied over a matrix of seven part load points in the low temperature combustion mode. The seven part load points were specified by engine speed (RPM) and brake mean effective pressure (BMEP).
Technical Paper

SOLID SCR®: Demonstrating an Improved Approach to NOx Reduction via a Solid Reductant

2011-09-13
2011-01-2207
Stringent global emissions legislation demands effective NOx reduction strategies, particularly for the aftertreatment, and current typical liquid urea SCR systems achieve efficiencies greater than 90% [1]. However, with such high-performing systems comes the trade-off of requiring a tank of reductant (urea water solution) to be filled regularly, usually as soon as the fuel fillings or as far as oil changes. Advantages of solid reductants, particularly ammonium carbamate, include greater ammonia densities, enabling the reductant refill interval to be extended several multiples versus a given reductant volume of urea, or diesel exhaust fluid (DEF) [2]. An additional advantage is direct gaseous ammonia dosing, enabling reductant injection at lower exhaust temperatures to widen its operational coverage achieving greater emissions reduction potential [3], as well as eliminating deposits, reducing mixing lengths, and avoiding freeze/thaw risks and investments.
Technical Paper

Diesel Combustion Control with Closed-Loop Control of the Injection Strategy

2008-04-14
2008-01-0651
Current and future emission legislations require a significant reduction of engine-out emissions for Diesel engines. For a further reduction of engine-out emissions, different measures are necessary such as: Especially an advanced emission and closed-loop combustion control has gained increased significance during the past years.
Technical Paper

Gas Exchange Optimization and the Impact on Emission Reduction for HSDI Diesel Engines

2009-04-20
2009-01-0653
The main tasks for all future powertrain developments are: regulated emissions, CO2-values, comfort, good drivability, high reliability and affordable costs. One widely discussed approach for fuel consumption improvement within passenger car applications, is to incorporate the downsizing effect. To attain constant engine performance an increase of boost pressure and/or rated speed is mandatory. In both cases, the mass flow rate through the intake and exhaust ports and valves will rise. In this context, the impact of the port layout on the system has to be reassessed. In this paper, the impact of the port layout on a modern diesel combustion system will be discussed and a promising concept shall be described in detail. The investigations shown include flow measurements, PIV measurements of intake flow, CFD simulations of the flow field during intake and results from the thermodynamic test bench. One of the important topics is to prove the impact of the flow quality on the combustion.
Technical Paper

Fuel Property Effects on Emissions and Performance of a Light-Duty Diesel Engine

2009-04-20
2009-01-0488
Increased demand for highly fuel efficient propulsion systems drives the engine development community to develop advanced technologies allowing improving the overall thermal efficiency while maintaining low emission levels. In addition to improving the thermal efficiencies of the internal combustion engine itself the developments of fuels that allow improved combustion as well as lower the emissions footprint has intensified recently. This paper will describe the effects of five different fuel types with significantly differing fuel properties on a state-of-the-art light-duty HSDI diesel engine. The fuels cetane number ranges between 26 and 76. These fuels feature significantly differing boiling characteristics as well as heating values. The fuel selection also contains one pure biodiesel (SME - Soy Methyl Ester). This study was conducted in part load and full load operating points using a state of the art HSDI diesel engine.
Technical Paper

A Multi-Cylinder Airflow & Residual Gas Estimation Tool Applied to a Vehicle Demonstrator

2010-04-12
2010-01-0169
In a gasoline engine, the cycle-by-cycle fresh trapped charge, and corresponding unswept residual gas fraction (RGF) are critical parameters of interest for maintaining the desired air-fuel ratio (AFR). Accurate fueling is a key precursor to improved engine fuel economy, and reduced engine out emissions. Asymmetric flow paths to cylinders in certain engines can cause differences in the gas exchange process, which in turn cause imbalances in trapped fresh charge and RGF. Variable cam timing (VCT) can make the gas exchange process even more complex. Due to the reasons stated above, simplified models can result in significant estimation errors for fresh trapped charge and RGF if they are not gas dynamics-based or detailed enough to handle features such as variable valve timing, duration, or lift. In this paper, a new air flow and RGF measurement tool is introduced.
Technical Paper

Increasing Efficiency in Gasoline Powertrains with a Two-Stage Variable Compression Ratio (VCR) System

2013-04-08
2013-01-0288
Downsizing in combination with turbocharging currently represents the main technology trend for meeting CO2 emissions with gasoline engines. Besides the well-known advantages of downsizing the compression ratio has to be reduced in order to mitigate knock at higher engine loads along with increased turbocharging demand to compensate for the reduction in power. Another disadvantage occurs at part load with increasing boost pressure levels causing the part load efficiencies to deteriorate. The application of a variable compression ratio (VCR) system can help to mitigate these disadvantages. The 2-stage VCR system with variable kinetic lengths entails variable powertrain components which can be used instead of the conventional components and thus only require minor modifications for existing engine architectures. The presented variable length connecting rod system has been continuously developed over the past years.
Technical Paper

Developing Drivetrain Robustness for Small Engine Testing

2013-04-08
2013-01-0400
The increased demand in fuel economy and the reduction of CO₂ emissions results in continued efforts to downsize engines. The downsizing efforts result in engines with lower displacement as well as lower number of cylinders. In addition to cylinder and displacement downsizing the development community embarks on continued efforts toward down-speeding. The combination of the aforementioned factors results in engines which can have high levels of torsional vibrations. Such behavior can have detrimental effects on the drivetrain particularly during the development phase of these. Driveshafts, couplings, and dynamometers are exposed to these torsional forces and depending on their frequency costly damages in these components can occur. To account for these effects, FEV employs a multi-body-system modeling approach through which base engine information is used to determine optimized drivetrain setups. All mechanical elements in the setup are analyzed based on their torsional behavior.
Technical Paper

Systematic Approach to Analyze and Characterize Pre-ignition Events in Turbocharged Direct-injected Gasoline Engines

2011-04-12
2011-01-0343
Downsized direct-injected boosted gasoline engines with high specific power and torque output are leading the way to reduce fuel consumption in passenger car vehicles while maintaining the same performance when compared to applications with larger naturally aspirated engines. These downsized engines reach brake mean effective pressure levels which are in excess of 20 bar. When targeting high output levels at low engine speeds, undesired combustion events called pre-ignition can occur. These pre-ignition events are typically accompanied by very high cylinder peak pressures which can lead to severe damage if the engine is not designed to withstand these high cylinder pressures. Although these pre-ignition events have been reported by numerous other authors, it seems that their occurrence is rather erratic which makes it difficult to investigate or reliably exclude them.
Technical Paper

Development and Calibration of On-Board-Diagnostic Strategies Using a Micro-HiL Approach

2011-04-12
2011-01-0703
Beginning in 2010, implementation of on-board diagnostics (OBD) is mandatory for all the heavy-duty engine applications in the United States. The task of developing OBD strategies and calibrating them is a challenging one. The process involves a strong interdependency on base engine emissions, controls and regulations. On top of that the strategies developed as a result of the regulatory requirements need to go through a stringent and time-intensive process of software implementation and integration. The recent increasing demands to minimize the development process have been pushing the envelope on the methodologies used in developing the strategies and the calibration for robust monitoring. The goal of this paper is to provide a concise overview of a process utilized to help the development, testing and calibration of the OBD strategies on a 2010 model year heavy-duty diesel engine.
Technical Paper

An Artificial Neural Network-based Approach for Virtual NOx Sensing

2008-04-14
2008-01-0753
With the advent of advanced diesel after-treatment technologies, sophisticated sensors are becoming a critical cost challenge to OEMs. This paper describes an approach for replacing the engine out NOx sensor with an artificial neural network (ANN) based virtual sensor. The technique centers around inferring NOx concentration from readily available engine operating parameters, eliminating the need for physical sensing and the cost associated with it. A multi-layer perceptron network was trained to estimate NOx concentration from engine speed, load, exhaust gas recirculation, and air-fuel ratio information. This supervised learning was conducted with measured engine data. The network was validated against measured data that was excluded from the training data set. The paper details application of this technique to both a heavy duty and light duty diesel engine. Results show good agreement between predictions and measured data under the steady state conditions studied.
Technical Paper

Investigation Regarding the Influence of a Catalytic Combustion Chamber Coating on Gasoline Combustion Characteristics, Emission Formation and Engine Efficiency

2012-04-16
2012-01-1097
Over the past few years, both global warming and rising oil prices led to a significantly increased demand for low fuel consumption in passenger cars. However, the necessity to also meet the limits of today's and future emission regulations makes it more and more difficult to maintain a high engine efficiency without the use of an expensive external exhaust gas after-treatment system. Therefore, new technologies that simultaneously prevent emission formation and reduce fuel consumption inside the internal combustion engine during the combustion process itself are of highest interest. This paper analyzes the influence of a catalytic coating of the combustion chamber on combustion, emission formation and fuel consumption. For this purpose, test runs with a production 2.0-liter, 4-cylinder, 4-valve, double overhead camshaft (DOHC), port fuel injection (PFI) gasoline engine were performed.
Technical Paper

Transient Drive Cycle Modeling of Supercharged Powertrains for Medium and Heavy Duty On-Highway Diesel Applications

2012-09-24
2012-01-1962
The problem with traditional drive cycle fuel economy analysis is that kinematic (backward looking) models do not account for transient differences in charge air handling systems. Therefore, dynamic (forward looking) 1D performance simulation models were created to predict drive cycle fuel economy which encompass all the transient elements of fully detailed engine and vehicle models. The transient-capable technology of primary interest was mechanical supercharging which has the benefit of improved boost response and "time to torque." The benefits of a supercharger clutch have also been evaluated. The current US class 6-8 commercial vehicle market exclusively uses turbocharged diesel engines. Three vehicles and baseline powertrains were selected based on a high-level review of vehicle sales and the used truck marketplace. Fuel economy over drive cycles was the principal output of the simulation work. All powertrains are based on EPA 2010 emission regulations.
Technical Paper

The NVH Behavior of Internal Combustion Engines used in Range Extended Electric Vehicles

2013-05-13
2013-01-2002
The electrification of vehicle propulsion has changed the landscape of vehicle NVH. Pure electric vehicles (EV) are almost always quieter than those powered by internal combustion engines. However, one of the key challenges with the development of range extended electric vehicles (ReEV) is the NVH behavior of the vehicle. Specifically, the transition from the EV mode to one where the range extender engine is operational can cause significant NVH issues. In addition, the operation of the range extender engine relative to various driving conditions can also pose significant NVH concerns. In this paper internal combustion engines are examined in terms of their acoustic behavior when used as range extenders. This is done by simulating the vibrations at the engine mounting positions as well as the intake and exhaust orifice noise. By using a transfer path synthesis, interior noise components of the range extenders are calculated from these excitations.
Technical Paper

Meeting 2025 CAFE Standards for LDT with Fuel-Efficient Diesel Powertrains - Approaches and Solutions

2017-03-28
2017-01-0698
In view of changing climatic conditions all over the world, Green House Gas (GHG) saving related initiatives such as reducing the CO2 emissions from the mobility and transportation sectors have gained in importance. Therefore, with respect to the large U.S. market, the corresponding legal authorities have defined aggressive and challenging targets for the upcoming time frame. Due to several aspects and conditions, like hesitantly acting clients regarding electrically powered vehicles or low prices for fossil fuels, convincing and attractive products have to be developed to merge legal requirements with market constraints. This is especially valid for the market segment of Light-Duty vehicles, like SUV’S and Pick-Up trucks, which are in high demand.
Technical Paper

Development of an Emission Controls Concept for an IDI Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Meeting 2007 Phase-In Emission Standards

2007-04-16
2007-01-0235
In order to allow continued production of the AM General Optimizer 6500 during MY 2007 through 2010 this IDI engine (Indirect Injection - swirl chamber) requires sophisticated aftertreatment controls while maintaining its fuel economy and durability. The main purpose of the development program was to retain the relatively inexpensive and simple base engine with distributor pump and waste-gated turbocharger, while adding hardware and software components that allow achievement of the phase-in emission standards for 2007 through 2010. The aftertreatment system consists of Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC), NOx Adsorber Catalyst (or DeNOx Trap - DNT) and Diesel Particle Filter (DPF). In addition to the base hardware, an intake air throttle valve and an in-exhaust fuel injector were installed. The presented work will document the development process for a 2004 certified 6.5 l IDI heavy-duty diesel engine to comply with the 2007 heavy-duty emission standards.
Technical Paper

Tier 2 Useful Life (120,000 miles) Exhaust Emission Results for a NOx Adsorber and Diesel Particle Filter Equipped Light-Duty Diesel Vehicle

2006-04-03
2006-01-0424
Due to its high efficiency and superior durability, the diesel engine is again becoming a prime candidate for future light-duty vehicle applications within the United States. While in Europe the overall diesel share exceeds 40%, the current diesel share in the United States is 1%. Despite the current situation and the very stringent Tier 2 emission standards, efforts are being made to introduce the diesel engine back into the U.S. market. In order to succeed, these vehicles have to comply with emissions standards over a 120,000 miles distance while maintaining their excellent fuel economy. The availability of technologies-such as high-pressure, common-rail fuel systems; low-sulfur diesel fuel; oxides of nitrogen (NOx) adsorber catalysts or NACs; and diesel particle filters (DPFs)-allow the development of powertrain systems that have the potential to comply with the light-duty Tier 2 emission requirements. In support of this, the U.S.
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