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Technical Paper

A Validation Study of Vehicle Dynamics Simulations for Heavy Truck Handling Maneuvers

This paper deals with the ongoing efforts at The Vehicle Research and Test Center (VRTC) in East Liberty, Ohio in promoting the safe operation of heavy trucks. The associated research evaluated two vehicle dynamics simulations for their accuracy in predicting tractor-trailer handling metrics. The goals of the research were threefold: 1. Establish a generic “benchmark” parametric data set for the three-axle truck/two-axle trailer vehicle 2. Demonstrate the accuracy of experimental data that was collected for the tractor-trailer vehicle of this study 3. Demonstrate the accuracy of two vehicle simulations by comparing their predicted responses to experimentally observed vehicle responses and metrics.
Technical Paper

Improving Steering Feel for the National Advanced Driving Simulator

The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's Vehicle Research and Test Center (VRTC) plans to evolve the state-of-the-art of steering system modeling for driving simulators with the ultimate goal being the development of a high fidelity steering feel model for the National Advanced Driving Simulator (NADS). The VRTC plans on developing reliable research tools that can be used to determine the necessary features for a steering model that will provide good objective and subjective steering feel. This paper reviews past and continuing work conducted at the VRTC and provides a plan for future work that will achieve this goal.
Technical Paper

Validation Results from Using NADSdyna Vehicle Dynamics Simulation

This paper presents an evaluation of a vehicle dynamics model intended to be used for the National Advanced Driving Simulator (NADS). Dynamic validation for high performance simulation is not merely a comparison between experimental and simulation plots. It involves strong insight of vehicle's subsystems mechanics, limitations of the mathematical formulations, and experimental predictions. Lateral, longitudinal, and ride dynamics are evaluated using field test data, and analytical diagnostics. The evaluation includes linear and non-linear range of vehicle dynamics response.
Technical Paper

Parameter Measurement and Development of a NADSdyna Validation Data Set for a 1994 Ford Taurus

This paper discusses the development of a 1994 Ford Taurus vehicle model for the National Advanced Driving Simulator's planned vehicle dynamics simulation, NADSdyna. The front and rear suspensions of the Taurus are modeled using recursive rigid body dynamics formulations. To complement vehicle dynamics, subsystems models that include steering, braking, and tire forces are included. These models provide state-of-the-art high fidelity vehicle handling dynamics for real-time simulation. The realism of a particular formulation depend heavily on how the parameters are obtained from the physical system. Therefore, the development of a data set for a particular model is as important as the model itself. The methodology for generating the Taurus data set is presented. The power train model is not yet included, so the simulation is run with the vehicle either at constant speed or decelerating.
Technical Paper

Methodology for Validating the National Advanced Driving Simulator's Vehicle Dynamics (NADSdyna)

This paper presents an overview of work performed by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's (NHTSA) Vehicle Research and Test Center (VRTC) to test, validate, and improve the planned National Advanced Driving Simulator's (NADS) vehicle dynamics simulation. This vehicle dynamics simulation, called NADSdyna, was developed by the University of Iowa's Center for Computer-Aided Design (CCAD) NADSdyna is based upon CCAD's general purpose, real-time, multi-body dynamics software, referred to as the Real-Time Recursive Dynamics (RTRD), supplemented by vehicle dynamics specific submodules VRTC has “beta tested” NADSdyna, making certain that the software both works as computer code and that it correctly models vehicle dynamics. This paper gives an overview of VRTC's beta test work with NADSdyna. The paper explains the methodology used by VRTC to validate NADSdyna.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Dynamic Characteristics of Tire Lateral and Longitudinal Force Responses to Dynamic Inputs

This paper presents the development of a tire model for use in the simulation of vehicle dynamics. The model was developed to predict tire lateral and longitudinal force responses to dynamic inputs. In this new tire model, the contact patch of a tire is lumped into a number of elements to study the dynamic behavior of the displacement of the tire contact patch in the lateral and longitudinal directions. For each displacement, a differential equation governing the dynamic behavior of the displacement to the dynamic inputs is derived. Based on the differential equations for the lateral and longitudinal displacements, difference equations are derived for the purpose of simulating tire output responses. Since system parameters, such as mass, damping and stiffness, in the difference equations are unknown, estimation of system parameters is performed using the differential equations and experimental data measured for this research.
Technical Paper

An Overview of the Evolution of Computer Assisted Motor Vehicle Accident Reconstruction

This paper presents an overview of the evolution of computer simulations in vehicle collision and occupant kinematic reconstructions. The basic principles behind these simulations, the origin of these programs and the evolution of these programs from a basic analytical mathematical model to a sophisticated computer program are discussed. In addition, a brief computer development history is discussed to demonstrate how the evolution of computer assisted vehicle accident reconstruction becomes feasible for a reconstructionist. Possible future research in computer reconstruction is also discussed.
Technical Paper

A Methodology for Validating Vehicle Dynamics Simulations

This paper presents a methodology for validating vehicle stability and control computer simulations. Validation is defined as showing that, within some specified operating range of the vehicle, a simulation's predictions of a vehicle's responses agree with the actual measured vehicle's responses to within some specified level of accuracy. The method uses repeated experimental runs at each test condition to generate sufficient data for statistical analyses. The acquisition and reduction of experimental data, and the processing path for simulation data, are described. The usefulness of time domain validation for steady state and slowly varying transients is discussed. The importance of frequency domain validation for thoroughly validating a simulation is shown. Both qualitative and quantitative methods for the comparison of the simulation predictions with the actual test measurements are developed.
Technical Paper

Critical Review of the Use of Seat Belts by Pregnant Women

Seat belt usage in the United States is increasing dramatically, due in part to legislative action. In addition, education programs have improved public awareness of the need for automotive restraints in achieving crash survival and injury reduction. The safety consciousness level of automobile passengers is particularly strong among pregnant women. It is reasonable to expect wider use of seat belts by expectant mothers due to this acute attention to safety. The literature demonstrates that incorrect usage of seat belts is a cause of injury. This can be especially applicable during pregnancy when changes in anatomy dictate a change in belt positioning, Review of the literature shows that the technical issues associated with the use of current production belt restraint systems by pregnant women has not been addressed.
Technical Paper

A Graphic Computer Simulation of the Pedestrian Vehicle Impact

This paper presents an interactive computer simulation of the pedestrian/vehicle interface. The simulation presents the results in an easy to analyze format including animation of the whole event. User requests for specific output data is available via a graphic menu. The model employs the use of the MacLaughlin/Daniel Computer Simulation developed by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. To illustrate the usefulness of the graphical and pictorial output, the results of a pedestrian/vehicle impact are presented.
Technical Paper

A Comparison between Two Different Computer Simulations in Measuring the Vehicle/Pedestrian Impact

This paper presents the analytical results of two different computer simulations of the vehicle pedestrian impact; PROMETHEUS 2 and the MacLaughlin/Daniel (MACDAN) models. The results presented illustrate the simularity and differences between the two models and accuracy of both to predict the actual occurrance. Also presented is a discussion relative to the modeling techniques of obtaining data for the pedestrian. This presentation illustrates the scaling techniques and actual data obtained in order to accurately simulate the pedestrian.
Technical Paper

Kinematic Suspension Model Applicable to Dynamic Full Vehicle Simulation

Computer simulations are popular for modeling vehicle system dynamics. However, further refinement of the vehicle dynamic model is required for extensive use in the automotive industry. In this paper, the model refining procedure is illustrated by developing reliable kinematic models verified with laboratory test results; instrument test data; and a mathematical optimization method. More specifically, simple kinematic models are developed for reduced computation times using ADAMS. They are tuned by the gradient-based optimization technique using the results from a laboratory testing facility, which includes the compliance effect in order to use the kinematic models in dynamic simulations. Also the Magic Formula tire model is developed using the optimization method and tire property data for the STI (Systems Technology, Incorporated) tire model.
Technical Paper

Tractor-Semitrailer Stability Following a Steer Axle Tire Blowout at Speed and Comparison to Computer Simulation Models

This paper documents the vehicle response of a tractor-semitrailer following a sudden air loss (Blowout) in a steer axle tire while traveling at highway speeds. The study seeks to compare full-scale test data to predicted response from detailed heavy truck computer vehicle dynamics simulation models. Full-scale testing of a tractor-semitrailer experiencing a sudden failure of a steer axle tire was conducted. Vehicle handling parameters were recorded by on-board computers leading up to and immediately following the sudden air loss. Inertial parameters (roll, yaw, pitch, and accelerations) were measured and recorded for the tractor and semitrailer, along with lateral and longitudinal speeds. Steering wheel angle was also recorded. These data are presented and also compared to the results of computer simulation models. The first simulation model, SImulation MOdel Non-linear (SIMON), is a vehicle dynamic simulation model within the Human Vehicle Environment (HVE) software environment.
Technical Paper

Establishing Occupant Response Metrics on a Roll Simulator

This paper presents the results of an in-depth study of the measurement of occupant kinematic response on the S-E-A Roll Simulator. This roll simulator was built to provide an accurate and repeatable test procedure for the evaluation of occupant protection and restraint systems during roll events within a variety of occupant compartments. In the present work this roll simulator was utilized for minimum-energy, or threshold type, rollover events of recreational off-highway vehicles (ROVs). Input profiles for these tests were obtained through a separate study involving autonomous full vehicle tests [1]. During simulated roll events anthropomorphic test device (ATD) responses were measured using on-board high speed video, an optical three-dimensional motion capture system (OCMS) and an array of string potentiometers.
Technical Paper

Advancements in Tire Modeling Through Implementation of Load and Speed Dependent Coefficients

An existing tire model was investigated for additional normal load-dependent characteristics to improve the large truck simulations developed by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) for the National Advanced Driving Simulator (NADS). Of the existing tire model coefficients, plysteer, lateral friction decay, aligning torque stiffness and normalized longitudinal stiffness were investigated. The findings of the investigation led to improvements in the tire model. The improved model was then applied to TruckSim to compare with the TruckSim table lookup tire model and test data. Additionally, speed-dependent properties for the NADS tire model were investigated (using data from a light truck tire).
Technical Paper

Vehicle Dynamics Modeling for the National Advanced Driving Simulator of a 1997 Jeep Cherokee

This paper discusses the development of the 1997 Jeep Cherokee model for the National Advanced Driving Simulator's planned vehicle dynamics software, NADSdyna. Recursive rigid body formalism called the Real Time Recursive Dynamics (RTRD) developed by the University of Iowa is used to model the front and rear suspension mechanisms. To complement vehicle dynamics for simulator applications, subsystems that include tires, aerodynamics, powertrain, brake, and steering are added to the rigid body dynamics model. These models provide high fidelity driving realism to simulate severe handling maneuvers in real time. The soundness of the model does not only depend on the mathematics of the model, but also on the validity of the parameters. Therefore, this paper discusses thoroughly the methodology of parameters estimation. A generic model of cruise control is included.
Technical Paper

The Impact of Worn Shocks on Vehicle Handling and Stability

The intent of this research is to understand the effects worn dampers have on vehicle stability and safety through dynamic model simulation. Dampers, an integral component of a vehicle's suspension system, play an important role in isolating road disturbances from the driver by controlling the motions of the sprung and unsprung masses. This paper will show that a decrease in damping leads to excessive body motions and a potentially unstable vehicle. The concept of poor damping affecting vehicle stability is well established through linear models. The next step is to extend this concept for non-linear models. This is accomplished through creating a vehicle simulation model and executing several driving maneuvers with various damper characteristics. The damper models used in this study are based on splines representing peak force versus velocity relationships.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of a Shock Model for Vehicle Simulation

This paper describes the development of a more accurate shock absorber model in order to obtain better vehicle simulation results. Previous shock models used a single spline to represent shock force versus shock velocity curves. These models produced errors in vehicle simulations because the damper characteristics are better represented by the application of a hysteresis loop in the model. Thus, a new damper model that includes a hysteresis loop is developed using Matlab Simulink. The damper characteristics for the new model were extracted from measurements made on a shock dynamometer. The new model better represents experimental shock data. The new shock model is incorporated into two different lumped-parameter vehicle models: one is a three degree-of-freedom vehicle handling model and the other is a seven degree-of-freedom vehicle ride model. The new damper model is compared with the previous model for different shock mileages (different degrees of wear).
Technical Paper

Modeling, Simulation and Design Space Exploration of a MTV 5.0 Ton Cargo Truck in MSC-ADAMS

This paper presents the results of a design space exploration based on the simulations of the MTV (Medium Tactical Vehicle) 5.0 Ton Cargo Truck using MSC-ADAMS (Automatic Dynamic Analysis of Mechanical System). Design space study is conducted using ADAMS/Car and ADAMS/Insight to consider parametric design changes in suspension and the tires of the cargo truck. The methodology uses an industry acknowledged multibody dynamics simulation software (ADAMS) for the modeling of the cargo truck and a flexible optimization architecture to explore the design space. This research is a part of the work done for the U.S. Army TACOM (Tank Automotive and Armaments Command) at the Center for Automotive Research, The Ohio State University.
Technical Paper

Validation of a Roll Simulator for Recreational Off-Highway Vehicles

A two-degree-of-freedom Roll Simulator has been developed to study the occupant kinematics of Recreational Off-Highway Vehicles (ROVs). To validate the roll simulator, test data was collected on a population of ROVs on the market today. J-turn maneuvers were performed to find the minimum energy limits required to tip up the vehicles. Two sets of tests were performed: for the first set, 10 vehicles were tested, where the motion was limited by safety outriggers to 10-15 degrees of roll; and for the second set, three of these vehicles were re-tested with outriggers removed and the vehicle motion allowed to reach 90 degrees of roll. These quarter-turn rollover tests were performed autonomously using an Automatic Steering Controller (ASC) and a Brake and Throttle Robot (BTR). Lateral and longitudinal accelerations as well as roll rate and roll angle were recorded for all tests.