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Technical Paper

Facilitating the Energy Optimization of Aircraft Propulsion and Thermal Management Systems through Integrated Modeling and Simulation

2010-11-02
2010-01-1787
An integrated, multidisciplinary environment of a tactical aircraft platform has been created by leveraging the powerful capabilities of both MATLAB/Simulink and Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS). The overall simulation includes propulsion, power, and thermal management subsystem models, which are integrated together and linked to an air vehicle model and mission profile. The model has the capability of tracking temperatures and performance metrics and subsequently controlling characteristics of the propulsion and thermal management subsystems. The integrated model enables system-level trade studies involving the optimization of engine bleed and power extraction and thermal management requirements to be conducted. The simulation can also be used to examine future technologies and advanced thermal management architectures in order to increase mission capability and performance.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study of a Multi-Gas Generator Fan to a Turbofan Engine on a Vertical Takeoff and Landing Personal Air Vehicle

2006-08-30
2006-01-2435
This paper attempts to assess the benefits of a unique distributed propulsion concept, known as the Multi-Gas Generator Fan (MGGF) system, over conventional turbofan engines on civilian vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) applications. The MGGF-based system has shown the potential to address the fundamental technical challenge in designing a VTOL aircraft: the significant mismatch between the power requirements at lift-off/hover and cruise. Vehicle-level performance and sizing studies were implemented using the Grumman Design 698 tilt-nacelle V/STOL aircraft as a notional personal air vehicle (PAV), subjected to hypothetical single engine failure (SEF) emergency landing requirements and PAV mission requirements.
Technical Paper

A System Dynamics Approach for Dynamic Uncertainty Assessment in a PAV Design Environment

2006-08-30
2006-01-2434
One the most critical barriers to the advancement of Personal Air Vehicles in today's market environment is that the technological capabilities can never seem to outweigh the risks associated with financing such an endeavor. To address such a need, a system dynamics approach with the capability to model the uncertainties in the supply chain is presented in this paper. The overall modeling framework is first presented and the modeling process of the various relevant elements, such as demand prediction and manufacturer analysis, is then described. The aim of this research is ultimately to assess the viability of a next-generation aircraft program beyond the static confines of a net present value approach, through the inclusion of dynamic events and uncertainties that can occur throughout the life-cycle of the aircraft.
Technical Paper

Quiet, Clean, and Efficient, but Heavy - Concerns for Future Fuel Cell Powered Personal Air Vehicles

2006-08-30
2006-01-2436
Unfortunately, the promises of efficient, clean, quiet power that fuel cells offer are balanced by extremely low power densities and great infrastructure-related challenges. Studies by government and industry have investigated their feasibility for primary propulsion in light aircraft. These studies have produced mixed results but have tended to rely on integrating fuel cells into existing airframes, with respectably-performing light sport planes being turned into underpowered show planes with horribly compromised range and payload capabilities. Fuel cells today are in the earliest phases of technological development. As an aircraft propulsion system, they are as advanced as the Wright's reciprocating engine was a hundred years ago.
Technical Paper

A Concept Selection Method Developed from a Probabilistic Multi-Criteria Decision Making Technique Using Utility Theory

2005-10-03
2005-01-3434
In today’s aircraft design, more and more attention is paid to the conceptual and preliminary design stages in order to increase the capability of choosing a design that will be successful. Therefore, the decisions made during these design phases play a central role in determining the success of a design. Decision making techniques at these stages, must manage multiple, conflicting criteria and capture associated uncertainties. The method presented in this study was developed from Joint Probability Decision Making (JPDM), a probabilistic multiple criteria decision making technique. The proposed method eliminated the limitations that JPDM has by utilizing Utility Functions to represent the decision maker’s preference. An advanced rotorcraft concept selection problem is performed in order to demonstrate the improvements, and the results obtained from the proposed method and the JPDM technique are compared with each other.
Technical Paper

Conceptual Design of Current Technology and Advanced Concepts for an Efficient Multi-Mach Aircraft

2005-10-03
2005-01-3399
A design process is formulated and implemented for the taxonomy selection and system-level optimization of an Efficient Multi-Mach Aircraft Current Technology Concept and an Advanced Concept. Concept space exploration of taxonomy alternatives is performed with multi-objective genetic algorithms and a Powell’s method scheme for vehicle optimization in a multidisciplinary modeling and simulation environment. A dynamic sensitivity visualization analysis tool is generated for the Advanced Concept with response surface equations.
Technical Paper

Technology Assessment of a Supersonic Business Jet

2005-10-03
2005-01-3393
This paper presents a quantitative process to track the progress of technology developments within NASA’s Vehicle Systems Program (VSP) as implemented on a Supersonic Business Jet (SBJ). The process, called the Technology Metric Assessment and Tracking (TMAT) process, accounts for the temporal aspects of technology development programs such that technology portfolio assessments, in the form of technological progress towards VSP sector goals, may be tracked and assessed. Progress tracking of internal research and development programs is an essential element to successful strategic endeavors and justification of the pursuit of capital projects [1].
Technical Paper

Variable Cycle Optimization for Supersonic Commercial Applications

2005-10-03
2005-01-3400
Variable cycle engines (VCEs) hold promise as an enabling technology for supersonic business jet (SBJ) applications. Fuel consumption can potentially be minimized by modulating the engine cycle between the subsonic and supersonic phases of flight. The additional flexibility may also contribute toward meeting takeoff and landing noise and emissions requirements. Several different concepts have been and are currently being investigated to achieve variable cycle operation. The core-driven fan stage (CDFS) variable cycle engine is perhaps the most mature concept since an engine of this type flew in the USAF Advanced Tactical Fighter prototype program in the 1990s. Therefore, this type of VCE is of particular interest for potential commercial application. To investigate the potential benefits of a CDFS variable cycle engine, a parametric model is developed using the NASA Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS).
Technical Paper

A General Aviation Aircraft Retrofit with a PEM Fuel Cell

2008-11-11
2008-01-2914
As gas prices and climate change become the preeminent issues of today, more research effort is being directed towards the development of cheaper and cleaner alternative energy sources. These efforts have been further complemented with research into the applicability of these sources to air, land and sea borne vehicles. In this report a notional C-172R general aviation aircraft is retrofitted with a PEM power plant as a case-study. Lower bounds for useful load and range are set in such a way that the results can be useful in determining how much improvement in the technology would be required to power a useful general aviation vehicle. It is seen that even at the predicted 2015 fuel cell technology level (per US Department of Energy projections), PEM systems would still be infeasible for this vehicle due to low specific power. Further investigation revealed that a PEM-battery hybrid system had better chances of feasibility.
Journal Article

Superconducting Machines and Power Systems for Electric-Drive Aeropropulsion

2008-11-11
2008-01-2862
Societal demands of recent years have increasingly pressured the development of greener technologies in all sectors of the nation's transportation infrastructure, including that of civilian aviation. This study explores the concept of electric-drive aeropropulsion, aided by high-temperature superconducting technology, as an enabler for enhancing the environmental characteristics at the air-vehicle level. Potential improvements in the areas of aircraft noise, emissions, and energy efficiency are discussed in the context of supporting the latest strategic goals of leading governmental organizations.
Technical Paper

Test Results for a Fuel Cell-Powered Demonstration Aircraft

2006-11-07
2006-01-3092
A fuel cell powered airplane has been designed and constructed at the Georgia Insitute of Technology to develop an understanding of the design and implementation challenges of fuel cell-powered unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). A custom 448W net output proton exchange membrane fuel cell powerplant has been constructed and tested. A demonstrator aircraft was designed and built to accommodate this powerplant and the fuel cell powered aircraft has performed seven test flights to date. Test data show that the aircraft performance validates the models used for design and optimization and that the fuel cell aircraft is capable of longer endurance, higher performance test flights.
Technical Paper

Development of Response Surface Equations for High-Speed Civil Transport Takeoff and Landing Noise

1997-10-01
975570
As an element of a design optimization study of high speed civil transport (HSCT), response surface equations (RSEs) were developed with the goal of accurately predicting the sideline, takeoff, and approach noise levels for any combination of selected design variables. These RSEs were needed during vehicle synthesis to constrain the aircraft design to meet FAR 36, Stage 3 noise levels. Development of the RSEs was useful as an application of response surface methodology to a previously untested discipline. Noise levels were predicted using the Aircraft Noise Prediction Program (ANOPP), with additional corrections to account for inlet and exhaust duct lining, mixer-ejector nozzles, multiple fan stages, and wing reflection. The fan, jet, and airframe contributions were considered in the aircraft source noise prediction.
Technical Paper

Demonstration of a Probabilistic Technique for the Determination of Aircraft Economic Viability

1997-10-01
975585
Over the past few years, modern aircraft design has experienced a paradigm shift from designing for performance to designing for affordability. This paper contains a probabilistic approach that will allow traditional deterministic design methods to be extended to account for disciplinary, economic, and technological uncertainty. The probabilistic approach was facilitated by the Fast Probability Integration (FPI) technique; a technique which allows the designer to gather valuable information about the vehicle's behavior in the design space. This technique is efficient for assessing multi-attribute, multi-constraint problems in a more realistic fashion. For implementation purposes, this technique is applied to illustrate how both economic and technological uncertainty associated with a Very Large Transport aircraft may be assessed.
Technical Paper

Probabilistic Analysis of an HSCT Modeled with an Equivalent Laminated Plate Wing

1997-10-01
975571
The High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT), a supersonic commercial transport currently under development, presents several challenges to traditional conceptual design. The current historical database used by many commercial transport design processes only include data for subsonic transports and therefore does not apply to innovative new configurations such as the HSCT. Therefore, physics-based, preliminary design tools must be used to model the characteristics of advanced aircraft in conceptual sizing routines. In addition, the evaluation of the aircraft design space often requires the analysis of many configurations in order to assess the impact of design constraints and determine the attainable range of system level metrics, a process which is very time consuming in both modeling and computer run time.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Assessment of High Speed Rotorcraft Concepts (HSRC): Reaction Driven Stopped Rotor/Wing Versus Variable Diameter Tiltrotor

1997-10-01
975548
The objective of this paper is to illustrate the methods and tools developed to size and synthesize a stopped rotor/wing vehicle using a reaction drive system, including how this design capability is incorporated into a sizing and synthesis tool, VASCOMP II. This new capability is used to design a vehicle capable of performing a V-22 escort mission, and a sized vehicle description with performance characteristics is presented. The resulting vehicle is then compared side-by-side to a variable diameter tiltrotor designed for the same mission. Results of this analysis indicate that the reaction-driven rotor concept holds promise relative to alternative concepts, but that the variable diameter tiltrotor has several inherent performance advantages. Additionally, the stopped rotor/wing needs considerably more development to reach maturity.
Technical Paper

A Technique for Testing and Evaluation of Aircraft Flight Performance During Early Design Phases

1997-10-01
975541
A technique is proposed for examining complex behaviors in the “pilot - vehicle - operational conditions” system using an autonomous situational model of flight. The goal is to identify potentially critical flight situations in the system behavior early in the design process. An exhaustive set of flight scenarios can be constructed and modeled on a computer by the designer in accordance with test certification requirements or other inputs. Distinguishing features of the technique include the autonomy of experimentation (the pilot and a flight simulator are not involved) and easy planning and quick modeling of complex multi-factor flight cases. An example of mapping airworthiness requirements into formal scenarios is presented. Simulation results for various flight situations and aircraft types are also demonstrated.
Technical Paper

A Probabilistic Approach to Multivariate Constrained Robust Design Simulation

1997-10-01
975508
Several approaches to robust design have been proposed in the past. Only few acknowledged the paradigm shift from performance based design to design for cost. The incorporation of economics in the design process, however, makes a probabilistic approach to design necessary, due to the inherent ambiguity of assumptions and requirements as well as the operating environment of future aircraft. The approach previously proposed by the authors, linking Response Surface Methodology with Monte Carlo Simulations, has revealed itself to be cumbersome and at times impractical for multi-constraint, multi-objective problems. In addition, prediction accuracy problems were observed for certain scenarios that could not easily be resolved. Hence, this paper proposes an alternate approach to probabilistic design, which is based on a Fast Probability Integration technique.
Technical Paper

A Probabilistic Design Methodology for Commercial Aircraft Engine Cycle Selection

1998-09-28
985510
The objective of this paper is to examine ways in which to implement probabilistic design methods in the aircraft engine preliminary design process. Specifically, the focus is on analytically determining the impact of uncertainty in engine component performance on the overall performance of a notional large commercial transport, particularly the impact on design range, fuel burn, and engine weight. The emphasis is twofold: first is to find ways to reduce the impact of this uncertainty through appropriate engine cycle selections, and second is on finding ways to leverage existing design margin to squeeze more performance out of current technology. One of the fundamental results shown herein is that uncertainty in component performance has a significant impact on the overall aircraft performance (it is on the same order of magnitude as the impact of the cycle itself).
Technical Paper

New Approaches to Conceptual and Preliminary Aircraft Design: A Comparative Assessment of a Neural Network Formulation and a Response Surface Methodology

1998-09-28
985509
This paper critically evaluates the use of Neural Networks (NNs) as metamodels for design applications. The specifics of implementing a NN approach are researched and discussed, including the type and architecture appropriate for design-related tasks, the processes of collecting training and validation data, and training the network, resulting in a sound process, which is described. This approach is then contrasted to the Response Surface Methodology (RSM). As illustrative problems, two equations to be approximated and a real-world problem from a Stability and Controls scenario, where it is desirable to predict the static longitudinal stability for a High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) at takeoff, are presented. This research examines Response Surface Equations (RSEs) as Taylor series approximations, and explains their high performance as a proven approach to approximate functions that are known to be quadratic or near quadratic in nature.
Technical Paper

Forecasting the Impact of Technology Infusion on Subsonic Transport Affordability

1998-09-28
985576
The design of complex systems, such as commercial aircraft, has drastically changed since the middle 1970's. Budgetary and airline requirements have forced many aerospace companies to reduce the amount of time and monetary investments in future revolutionary concepts and design methods. The current NASA administration has noticed this shift in aviation focus and responded with the “Three Pillars for Success” program. This program is a roadmap for the development of research, innovative ideas, and technology implementation goals for the next 20 years. As a response to this program, the Aerospace Systems Design Laboratory at Georgia Tech is developing methods whereby forecasting techniques will aid in the proper assessment of future vehicle concepts. This method is called Technology Impact Forecasting (TIF). This method is applied to a medium-range, intra-continental, commercial transport concept.
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