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Technical Paper

A Probabilistic Approach to Multivariate Constrained Robust Design Simulation

1997-10-01
975508
Several approaches to robust design have been proposed in the past. Only few acknowledged the paradigm shift from performance based design to design for cost. The incorporation of economics in the design process, however, makes a probabilistic approach to design necessary, due to the inherent ambiguity of assumptions and requirements as well as the operating environment of future aircraft. The approach previously proposed by the authors, linking Response Surface Methodology with Monte Carlo Simulations, has revealed itself to be cumbersome and at times impractical for multi-constraint, multi-objective problems. In addition, prediction accuracy problems were observed for certain scenarios that could not easily be resolved. Hence, this paper proposes an alternate approach to probabilistic design, which is based on a Fast Probability Integration technique.
Technical Paper

Development of Response Surface Equations for High-Speed Civil Transport Takeoff and Landing Noise

1997-10-01
975570
As an element of a design optimization study of high speed civil transport (HSCT), response surface equations (RSEs) were developed with the goal of accurately predicting the sideline, takeoff, and approach noise levels for any combination of selected design variables. These RSEs were needed during vehicle synthesis to constrain the aircraft design to meet FAR 36, Stage 3 noise levels. Development of the RSEs was useful as an application of response surface methodology to a previously untested discipline. Noise levels were predicted using the Aircraft Noise Prediction Program (ANOPP), with additional corrections to account for inlet and exhaust duct lining, mixer-ejector nozzles, multiple fan stages, and wing reflection. The fan, jet, and airframe contributions were considered in the aircraft source noise prediction.
Technical Paper

Facilitating the Energy Optimization of Aircraft Propulsion and Thermal Management Systems through Integrated Modeling and Simulation

2010-11-02
2010-01-1787
An integrated, multidisciplinary environment of a tactical aircraft platform has been created by leveraging the powerful capabilities of both MATLAB/Simulink and Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS). The overall simulation includes propulsion, power, and thermal management subsystem models, which are integrated together and linked to an air vehicle model and mission profile. The model has the capability of tracking temperatures and performance metrics and subsequently controlling characteristics of the propulsion and thermal management subsystems. The integrated model enables system-level trade studies involving the optimization of engine bleed and power extraction and thermal management requirements to be conducted. The simulation can also be used to examine future technologies and advanced thermal management architectures in order to increase mission capability and performance.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study of a Multi-Gas Generator Fan to a Turbofan Engine on a Vertical Takeoff and Landing Personal Air Vehicle

2006-08-30
2006-01-2435
This paper attempts to assess the benefits of a unique distributed propulsion concept, known as the Multi-Gas Generator Fan (MGGF) system, over conventional turbofan engines on civilian vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) applications. The MGGF-based system has shown the potential to address the fundamental technical challenge in designing a VTOL aircraft: the significant mismatch between the power requirements at lift-off/hover and cruise. Vehicle-level performance and sizing studies were implemented using the Grumman Design 698 tilt-nacelle V/STOL aircraft as a notional personal air vehicle (PAV), subjected to hypothetical single engine failure (SEF) emergency landing requirements and PAV mission requirements.
Technical Paper

Viable Designs Through a Joint Probabilistic Estimation Technique

1999-10-19
1999-01-5623
A key issue in complex systems design is measuring the ‘goodness’ of a design, i.e. finding a criterion through which a particular design is determined to be the ‘best’. Traditional choices in aerospace systems design, such as performance, cost, revenue, reliability, and safety, individually fail to fully capture the life cycle characteristics of the system. Furthermore, current multi-criteria optimization approaches, addressing this problem, rely on deterministic, thus, complete and known information about the system and the environment it is exposed to. In many cases, this information is not be available at the conceptual or preliminary design phases. Hence, critical decisions made in these phases have to draw from only incomplete or uncertain knowledge. One modeling option is to treat this incomplete information probabilistically, accounting for the fact that certain values may be prominent, while the actual value during operation is unknown.
Technical Paper

Development of Wing Structural Weight Equation for Active Aeroelastic Wing Technology

1999-10-19
1999-01-5640
A multidisciplinary design study considering the impact of Active Aeroelastic Wing (AAW) technology on the structural wing weight of a lightweight fighter concept is presented. The study incorporates multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) and response surface methods to characterize wing weight as a function of wing geometry. The study involves the sizing of the wing box skins of several fighter configurations to minimum weight subject to static aeroelastic requirements. In addition, the MDO problem makes use of a new capability, trim optimization for redundant control surfaces, to accurately model AAW technology. The response surface methodology incorporates design of experiments, least squares regression, and makes use of the parametric definition of a structural finite element model and aerodynamic model to build response surface equations of wing weight as a function of wing geometric parameters for both AAW technology and conventional control technology.
Technical Paper

An Improved Process for the Generation of Drag Polars for use in Conceptual/Preliminary Design

1999-10-19
1999-01-5641
One of the most essential contributors in the aircraft sizing and synthesis process is the creation and utilization of accurate drag polars. An improved general procedure to generate drag polars for conceptual and preliminary design purposes in the form of Response Surface Equations is outlined and discussed in this paper. This approach facilitates and supports aerospace system design studies as well as Multi-disciplinary Analysis and Optimization. The analytically created Response Surface Equations replace the empirical aerodynamic relations or historical data found in sizing and synthesis codes, such as the Flight Optimization System (FLOPS). These equations are commonly incorporated into system level studies when a configuration falls beyond the conventional realm. The approach described here is a statistics-based methodology, which combines the use of Design of Experiments and Response Surface Method (RSM).
Technical Paper

An Automated Robust Process for Physics Based Aerodynamic Prediction

2000-10-10
2000-01-5565
By Combining the Response Surface Methodology with a classical Design of Experiments formulation, a robust method was developed to facilitate the aerodynamic analysis of conceptual designs. These aerodynamic predictions, presented in a parametric form, can then be furnished to a sizing and synthesis code for further evaluation of the concept at the system level. The computational basis of this methodology is a set of numerical codes that work in unison to both optimize the geometry for minimal drag and evaluate key aerodynamic parameters such as lift, friction, wave and induced drag coefficients. Code fidelity and sensitivity to a wide variety of input parameters such as aircraft geometry, panel layout, number of panels used, flow theory used within the numerical code, etc. was investigated. The numerical results were compared with experimental data for different configurations, and the code input parameters required for the best correlation were grouped according to aircraft type.
Technical Paper

Formulation, Realization, and Demonstration of a Process to Generate Aerodynamic Metamodels for Hypersonic Cruise Vehicle Design

2000-10-10
2000-01-5559
The desire to facilitate the conceptual and preliminary design of hypersonic cruise vehicles has created the need for simple, fast, versatile, and trusted aerodynamic analysis tools. Metamodels representing physics-based engineering codes provide instantaneous access to calibrated tools. Nonlinear transformations extend the capability of metamodels to accurately represent a large design space. Independence, superposition, and scaling properties of the hypersonic engineering method afford an expansive design space without traditional compounding penalties. This one-time investment results in aerodynamic and volumetric metamodels of superior quality and versatility which may be used in many forms throughout early design. As a module, they can be an integral component within a multidisciplinary analysis and optimization package. Aerodynamic polars they produce may provide performance information for mission analysis.
Technical Paper

Implementation of Parametric Anaylsis to the Aerodynamic Design of a Hypersonic Strike Fighter

2000-10-10
2000-01-5561
A Hypersonic Strike Fighter (HSF) would provide many benefits over current fighters, including increased effectiveness and survivability. However, there are many design challenges to developing such a vehicle. Therefore the conceptual design of an HSF requires the development of new tools and methods to analyze and select vehicle concepts. A parametric method was developed to determine aerodynamic characteristics of hypersonic vehicles in a rapid, automated way. This parametric method and other tools were then used to select a baseline design and optimize this baseline for the notional mission.
Technical Paper

Bi-level Integrated System Synthesis: A Proposed Application to Aeroelastic Constraint Analysis in a Conceptual Design Environment

2003-09-08
2003-01-3060
The projection of aeroelastic constraints in the design space has long been a want in the design process of vehicles. These properties are usually not established accurately until later phases of design. The desire is to bring another interactive constraint to the conceptual design phase and allow the designer to see the impact of design decisions on aeroelastic characteristics. Even though a number of analysis and optimization tools have been developed to support aeroelastic analysis and optimization in the flight vehicle design process, the toolbox is far from being complete. The results often cannot be obtained in a manner timely enough and the natural division of the engineering team into specialty groups is not supported very well by the aerodynamic-structures monolithic codes typically in the above toolbox. The monolithic codes are also not amenable to the use of concurrent processing now made available by computer technology.
Technical Paper

An Improved Procedure for Prediction of Drag Polars of a Joined Wing Concept Using Physics-Based Response Surface Methodology

2001-09-11
2001-01-3015
Creation and utilization of accurate drag polars is essential in the aircraft sizing and synthesis process. Existing sizing and synthesis codes are based on historical data and cannot capture the aerodynamics of a non-conventional aircraft at the conceptual design phase. The fidelity of the aerodynamic analysis should be enhanced to increase the designer’s confidence in the results. Hence, there is need for a physics-based approach to generate the drag polars of an aircraft lying outside the conventional realm. The deficiencies of the legacy codes should be removed and replaced with higher fidelity meta-model representations. This is facilitated with response surface methodology (RSM), which is a mathematical and statistical technique that is suited for the modeling and analysis of problems in which the responses, the drag coefficients in this case, are influenced by several variables. The geometric input variables are chosen so that they represent a multitude of configurations.
Technical Paper

Technology Portfolio Assessments Using a Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm

2004-11-02
2004-01-3144
This paper discusses the use of a Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm to optimize a technology portfolio for a commercial transport. When incorporating technologies into a conceptual design, there are often multiple competing objectives that determine the benefits and costs of a certain portfolio. The set of designs that achieves the best values of these objectives will fall along a Pareto front that outlines the tradeoffs which will give the optimal design. Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithms determine the Pareto set by giving higher priority to dominant portfolios in the evolutionary optimization techniques of selection and reproduction. When determining the final Pareto optimal set it is important to ensure that only compatible portfolios of technologies are present.
Technical Paper

Conceptual Design of Current Technology and Advanced Concepts for an Efficient Multi-Mach Aircraft

2005-10-03
2005-01-3399
A design process is formulated and implemented for the taxonomy selection and system-level optimization of an Efficient Multi-Mach Aircraft Current Technology Concept and an Advanced Concept. Concept space exploration of taxonomy alternatives is performed with multi-objective genetic algorithms and a Powell’s method scheme for vehicle optimization in a multidisciplinary modeling and simulation environment. A dynamic sensitivity visualization analysis tool is generated for the Advanced Concept with response surface equations.
Technical Paper

Variable Cycle Optimization for Supersonic Commercial Applications

2005-10-03
2005-01-3400
Variable cycle engines (VCEs) hold promise as an enabling technology for supersonic business jet (SBJ) applications. Fuel consumption can potentially be minimized by modulating the engine cycle between the subsonic and supersonic phases of flight. The additional flexibility may also contribute toward meeting takeoff and landing noise and emissions requirements. Several different concepts have been and are currently being investigated to achieve variable cycle operation. The core-driven fan stage (CDFS) variable cycle engine is perhaps the most mature concept since an engine of this type flew in the USAF Advanced Tactical Fighter prototype program in the 1990s. Therefore, this type of VCE is of particular interest for potential commercial application. To investigate the potential benefits of a CDFS variable cycle engine, a parametric model is developed using the NASA Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS).
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