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Technical Paper

Investigation of Three Different Mixtures of Ecofuels Used on a Perkins Engine on a Test Bed

2010-10-05
2010-01-1970
This paper describes and analyzes the results of investigations of application of heavy alcohols as an ingredient of diesel fuel. Three different mi xtures of butanol (as heavy alcohol), rape oil (as vegetable oil) and conventional diesel fuel (this mixture was called the biomixdiesel-BMD) were tested using a Perkins engine on a test bed. Contrary to existing experiences both the maximum power output and the maximum torque of the engine were higher in the whole range of the speed of the engine crankshaft when the engine biomixdiesel (BMD) was reinforced. The addition of the component biomix to fuel influenced the specific fuel consumption. Generally, with the larger part of the biomix components the specific fuel consumption were higher. Also the engine power was higher and one should expect that in exploitation the specific fuel consumption should not increase. It is very important that this fuel could be used to reinforce old, already existing and the future diesel engines.
Technical Paper

Ignition Timing Impact on the Performance of an Old Technology Vehicle Fuelled by Ethanol/Petrol Blends

2009-06-15
2009-01-1968
The scope of this work was to study the impact of the ignition timing on the engine’s performance on an old technology vehicle fuelled by ethanol/petrol blends. Many previous studies have been published on the subject, but most of them were carried on SI engines using bench dynamometers. In this work, a 1.3 L Ford Escort equipped with a carburettor and without a catalytic converter was tested on a chassis dynamometer. Blends with ethanol concentrations of 10%, 20% and 50% per volume were used and the results were compared with the reference LRP fuel. All tests were performed at three different constant speeds of 30, 50 and 90 km/h, under full load with wide open throttle. Torque and rpm of the engine were recorded by the chassis dynamometer’s software. The fuel consumption was measured by means of the gravimetric method. All measurements were taken at three different settings of the advance angle, at 0°, 4° and 12° BTDC.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Regulated and Unregulated Cold Start Emissions for Different Real World Urban Driving Cycles Using a SI Passenger Car

2008-06-23
2008-01-1648
An in-vehicle FTIR emission measurement system was used to investigate the exhaust emissions under different real world urban driving conditions. Five different driving cycles were developed based on real world urban driving conditions including urban free flow driving, junction maneuver, congested traffic and moderate speed cruising. The test vehicle was a EURO 2 emission compliant SI car equipped with temperature measurement along the exhaust pipe across the catalyst and real time fuel consumption measurement system. Both regulated and non-regulated emissions were measured and analyzed for different driving cycles. All journeys were started from cold. The engine warm up features and emissions as a function of engine warm up for different driving conditions were investigated.
Technical Paper

Comparisons of the Exhaust Emissions for Different Generations of SI Cars under Real World Urban Driving Conditions

2008-04-14
2008-01-0754
EURO 1, 2 3 and 4 SI (Spark Ignition) Ford Mondeo passenger cars were compared for their real world cold start emissions using an on-board FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared) exhaust emission measurement system. The FTIR system can measure up to 65 species including both regulated and non-regulated exhaust pollutants at a rate of 0.5 Hz. The driving parameters such as speed, fuel consumption and air/fuel ratio were logged. The coolant water, lube oil and exhaust temperatures were also recorded. A typical urban driving cycle including a loop and a section of straight road was used for the comparison test as it was similar to the legislative ECE15 urban driving cycle. Exhaust emissions were calculated for the whole journey average and compared to EU legislation. The cold start transient emissions were also investigated as a separate parameter and this was where there was the greatest difference between the four vehicles.
Technical Paper

Controlling Particulate Matter Emissions in Vehicles Using Different Strategies under the Heavy-Duty Test Cycle

2012-04-16
2012-01-0885
Since 1997 in Belgium, the market share of vehicles equipped with diesel engine has grown up from 50% to nearly 80%. Most of the drivers are using diesel cars for private or company purposes and gasoline powered engine vehicles sales dropped dramatically since then. This evolution is clearly a game-changer regarding the type of regulated emissions we can find as dominant. Tests and analysis for this work focused on diesel passenger cars and one of the main drivers for that was the great demand of new cars fitted with exhaust aftertreatment devices (DPF, DOC, LBC etc.). In this paper the performance of soot filters were measured and presented, based not on the NEDC but on the heavy duty 13-Mode test cycle which emphasize mainly at low-speed driving conditions, such as all passenger cars are running currently, and is also characterized by low average engine loads and low exhaust temperatures.
Technical Paper

Estimating the CO2 Emissions Reduction Potential of Various Technologies in European Trucks Using VECTO Simulator

2017-09-04
2017-24-0018
Heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs) account for some 5% of the EU’s total greenhouse gas emissions. They present a variety of possible configurations that are deployed depending on the intended use. This variety makes the quantification of their CO2 emissions and fuel consumption difficult. For this reason, the European Commission has adopted a simulation-based approach for the certification of CO2 emissions and fuel consumption of HDVs in Europe; the VECTO simulation software has been developed as the official tool for the purpose. The current study investigates the impact of various technologies on the CO2 emissions of European trucks through vehicle simulations performed in VECTO. The chosen vehicles represent average 2015 vehicles and comprised of two rigid trucks (Class 2 and 4) and a tractor-trailer (Class 5), which were simulated under their reference configurations and official driving cycles.
Technical Paper

Study of thermal characteristics, fuel consumption and emissions during cold start using an on-board measuring method for SI car real world urban driving

2007-07-23
2007-01-2065
Exhaust emissions were measured under real world urban driving conditions using a set of in-vehicle FTIR emission measurement system, which is able to measure 65 emission components simultaneously at a rate of 0.5 Hz. The test vehicle was a EURO 2 emission compliant SI car equipped with real time fuel consumption measurement and temperature measurement along the exhaust pipe across the catalyst allowing the matching of thermal characteristics to emission profiles and monitor fuel consumption. The temperature profile indicated that the light-off of the catalyst took about 150∼200 seconds. The warm up of the lubricating oil and coolant water required a longer time than the catalyst did. The impact of ambient temperatures on lubricating oil and coolant water warm ups was greater than that on the light-off of the catalyst. The heat loss and energy balance were calculated during the whole cycle period. The influence of cold start on fuel consumption was investigated.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Driving Parameters and Emissions for Real World Urban Driving Cycles using an on-board Measurement Method for a EURO 2 SI car

2007-07-23
2007-01-2066
A FTIR in-vehicle on-road emission measurement system was installed in a EURO 2 emissions compliant SI car to investigate exhaust emissions under different urban traffic conditions. The real time fuel consumption and vehicle traveling speed was measured and logged. The temperatures were measured along the exhaust pipe so as to monitor the thermal characteristics and efficiency of the catalyst. Two real world driving cycles were developed with different traffic conditions. One (WP cycle) was located in a quiet area with few traffic interference and the other one (HPL cycle) was in a busy area with more traffic variations. The test car was pre-warmed before each test to eliminate cold start effect. The driving parameters were analyzed for two real world cycles. The WP cycle had higher acceleration rate, longer acceleration mode and shorter steady speed driving mode and thus harsher than the HPL cycle.
Journal Article

Study of the Effects of Ethanol Use on a Ford Escort Fitted with an Old Technology Engine

2008-10-07
2008-01-2608
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects on the engine's efficiency and exhaust gas emissions by the use of ethanol/gasoline blends in conventional technology vehicles. The fuels E0, E10, E20 and E50 were tested in a 1300cc old technology vehicle without a catalytic converter. The measurements of the engine's brake torque, revolutions and fuel consumption were accomplished on a chassis dynamometer for different engine loads and with different gear ratios. Regarding the exhaust gas emissions, the concentrations of CO2 , CO, HC and NOx were recorded. The results have shown that increasing the ethanol percentage in the blend has decreased the CO and HC emissions but increased the NOx emissions. For fuels E10 and E20 an increase on the engine's brake torque and power along with a decrease in fuel consumption were observed. For E50, both brake torque and power were reduced. The CO2 emissions were increased as the ethanol concentration increased.
Journal Article

Impact of Driving Cycles on Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Fuel Economy for SI Car Real World Driving

2008-06-23
2008-01-1749
The transport sector is one of the major contributors to greenhouse gas emissions. This study investigated three greenhouse gases emitted from road transport: CO2, N2O and CH4 emissions as a function of engine warm up and driving cycles. Five different urban driving cycles were developed and used including free flow driving and congested driving. An in-vehicle FTIR (Fourier Transform Inferred) emission measurement system was installed on a EURO2 emission compliant SI (Spark Ignition) car for emissions measurement at a rate of 0.5 HZ under real world urban driving conditions. This emission measurement system was calibrated on a standard CVS (Constant Volume Sampling) measurement system and showed excellent agreement on CO2 measurement with CVS results. The N2O and CH4 measurement was calibrated using calibration gas in lab. A MAX710 real time in-vehicle fuel consumption measurement system was installed in the test vehicle and real time fuel consumption was then obtained.
Journal Article

Influence of Cold Start and Ambient Temperatures on Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions, Global Warming Potential (GWP) and Fuel Economy for SI Car Real World Driving

2010-04-12
2010-01-0477
The transport sector is one of the major contributors to greenhouse gas emissions. This study investigated three greenhouse gases emitted from road transport using a probe vehicle: CO₂, N₂O and CH₄ emissions as a function of cold start and ambient temperatures. A real-world driving cycle has been developed at Leeds and referred as LU-BS, which has an urban free flow driving pattern. The test vehicle was driven on the same route by the same driver on different days with different ambient temperatures. All the journeys were started from cold. An in-vehicle FTIR emission measurement system was installed on a EURO2 emission compliance SI car for emissions measurement at a rate of 0.5 Hz. This emission measurement system was calibrated on a standard CVS measurement system and showed an excellent agreement on the CO₂ measurement with the CVS results. The N₂O and CH₄ were calibrated by calibration gas bottles.
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