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Guidelines for Integration of Engine Monitoring Functions With On-Board Aircraft Systems

1996-06-01
HISTORICAL
AIR4061A
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) discusses physical and functional integration of main engine and auxiliary power unit (APU) monitoring with other on-board systems. It includes General Considerations, Parameter Selection and Requirements, Signal Sources, Signal Conditioning, Data Processing, Data Storage, and Data Retrieval. Engine monitoring hardware and software are discussed so that they may be properly considered in an integrated design. Civil and military aviation applications are included and delineated where requirements differ.
Standard

GUIDELINES FOR INTEGRATION OF ENGINE MONITORING FUNCTIONS WITH ON-BOARD AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS

1990-01-01
HISTORICAL
AIR4061
This Aerospace Information Report (AIR) discusses physical and functional integration of main engine and auxiliary power unit (APU) monitoring with other on-board systems. It includes General Considerations, Parameter Selection and Requirements, Signal Sources, Signal Conditioning, Data Processing, Data Storage, and Data Retrieval. Engine monitoring hardware and software are discussed so that they may be properly considered in an integrated design. Civil and military aviation applications are included and delineated where requirements differ.
Standard

Guidelines for Integrating Typical Engine Health Management Functions Within Aircraft Systems

2008-02-14
HISTORICAL
AIR4061B
SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) 4061 provides best practice guidelines for the integration of Engine Health Management (EHM) system functions within aircraft systems to include both its main engine(s) and any Auxiliary Power Unit(s) (APU). This document provides an overview of some of the functions EHM typically integrates, offers some system variations encountered with different aircraft, and suggests general considerations involved with integration. It presents a sample EHM parameter coverage matrix to show the types of parameters with which a typical EHM system might interface, offers insight into signal and data processing and retrieval, and offers a view of typical EHM parameter requirements by function. Where practical, this document delineates between military and commercial practices.
Standard

A Guide to Aircraft Turbine Engine Vibration Monitoring Systems

2015-12-20
CURRENT
ARP1839
This Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) is a general overview of typical airborne engine vibration monitoring (EVM) systems applicable to fixed or rotary wing aircraft applications, with an emphasis on system design considerations. It describes EVM systems currently in use and future trends in EVM development. The broader scope of Health and Usage Monitoring Systems, (HUMS) is covered in SAE documents AS5391, AS5392, AS5393, AS5394, AS5395, AIR4174. This ARP also contains the essential elements of AS8054 which remain relevant and which have not been incorporated into Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEM) specifications.
Standard

AIRCRAFT GAS TURBINE ENGINE MONITORING SYSTEM GUIDE

1993-04-01
HISTORICAL
ARP1587A
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) is a system guide for Engine Monitoring System (EMS) definition and implementation. This keystone document addresses EMS benefits, capabilities, and requirements. It includes EMS in-flight and ground applications consisting of people, equipment, and software. It recommends EMS requirements that are a balance of selected benefits and available capabilities. This ARP purposely addresses a wide range of EMS architecture. The intent is to provide an extensive list of possible EMS design options. NOTE: a Section 3 describes an EMS. b Sections 4 and 5 outline benefits and capabilities that should be considered for study purposes to define EMS baselines for how much engine monitoring is required. c Section 6 provides implementation requirements that should be considered for an EMS after study baseline levels of EMS complexity are selected.
Standard

AIRCRAFT GAS TURBINE ENGINE MONITORING SYSTEM GUIDE

1981-04-30
HISTORICAL
ARP1587
This ARP is a system guide for Engine Monitoring System (EMS) definition and implementation. This keystone document addresses EMS benefits, capabilities and requirements. It includes EMS in-flight and ground applications of people and equipment, and recommends EMS requirements that are a balance of selected benefits and available capabilities. This ARP purposely addresses a comprehensive EMS. The intent is to provide an extensive list of possible EMS design options. NOTE: - Section 3 describes an EMS. - Sections 4 and 5 outline benefits and capabilities that should be considered for study purposes to define EMS baselines for how much or how little engine monitoring might be required. - Section 6 provides implementation requirements that should be considered for an EMS after study baseline levels of EMS complexity are selected.
Standard

Aircraft Gas Turbine Engine Health Management System Guide

2007-05-21
CURRENT
ARP1587B
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) examines the whole construct of an Engine Health Management (EHM) system. This keystone document gives a top-level view and addresses EHM description, benefits, and capabilities, and provides examples. This ARP purposely addresses a wide range of EHM architectures to demonstrate possible EHM design options. This ARP is not intended as a legal document and does not provide detailed implementation steps, but does address general implementation concerns and potential benefits. Other SAE documents (Aerospace Standards, Aerospace Recommended Practices, and Aerospace Information Reports) address specific component specifications, procedures and "lessons learned".
Standard

A Guide to Aircraft Power Train Monitoring

2017-07-19
CURRENT
AIR4174A
The purpose of this SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) is to provide management, designers, and operators with information to assist them to decide what type of power train monitoring they desire. This document is to provide assistance in optimizing system complexity, performance and cost effectiveness. This document covers all power train elements from the point at which aircraft propulsion energy in a turbine or reciprocating engine is converted via a gear train to mechanical energy for propulsion purposes. The document covers aircraft engine driven transmission and gearbox components, their interfaces, drivetrain shafting, drive shaft hanger bearings, and associated rotating accessories, propellers, and rotor systems as shown in Figure 1. For guidance on monitoring additional engine components not addressed, herein (e.g., main shaft bearings and compressor/turbine rotors), refer to ARP1839.
Standard

A GUIDE TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF A GROUND STATION FOR ENGINE CONDITION MONITORING

1994-02-01
HISTORICAL
AIR4175
An effective ground station is vital to the successful implementation of an EMS and is a fundamental part of the total monitoring system design. Unlike on-board processing systems which principally use data to indicate when engine maintenance is required, ground stations offer much greater processing power to analyse and manipulate EMS data more comprehensively for both maintenance and logistics purposes. This document reviews the main EMS functions and discusses the operating requirements which will determine the basic design of a ground station, including the interfaces with other maintenance or logistics systems. A brief discussion is also included on some of the more recent advances in EMS ground station technology which have been specifically developed to provide more effective diagnostic capabilities for gas turbine engines. Finally, this document addresses the program management requirements associated with the initial development and on-going support of a ground station.
Standard

A Guide to the Development of a Ground Station for Engine Condition Monitoring

2005-02-16
HISTORICAL
AIR4175A
An effective GSS is vital to the successful implementation of an EMS and is a fundamental part of the total monitoring system design, including asset management. Unlike the on-board part of the EMS which principally uses real time data to indicate when engine maintenance is required, a GSS can offer much greater processing power to comprehensively analyze and manipulate EMS data for both maintenance and logistics purposes. This document reviews the main EMS functions and discusses the operating requirements used to determine the basis design of a GSS, including the interfaces with other maintenance or logistic systems. A brief discussion is also included on some of the more recent advances in GSS technology that have been specifically developed to provide more effective diagnostic capabilities for gas turbine engines.
Standard

Cost Versus Benefits of Engine Monitoring Systems

1995-10-01
HISTORICAL
AIR4176
The purpose of this SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) is to provide information that would be useful to potential users/operators and decision makers for evaluating and quantifying the benefits of an Engine Monitoring Systems (EMS) versus its cost of implementation. This document presents excerpts from reports developed to analyze “actual aircraft cost/benefits results”. These are presented as follows: a First, to outline the benefits and cost elements pertaining to EMS that may be used in performing a cost versus benefits analysis. b Second, to present considerations for use in conducting the analysis. c Third, to provide examples of analyses and results as they relate to the user/operator and decision-maker community. The document encompasses helicopters and fixed wing aircraft and distinguishes between civilian and military considerations.
Standard

Guide to Temperature Monitoring in Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines

1997-11-01
CURRENT
AIR1900A
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) provides an overview of temperature measurement for engine monitoring systems in various areas of aircraft gas turbine engines while focusing on current usage and methods, systems, selection criteria, and types of hardware. This document emphasizes temperature monitoring for diagnostics and condition monitoring purposes.
Standard

GUIDE TO TEMPERATURE MONITORING IN AIRCRAFT GAS TURBINE ENGINES

1991-02-07
HISTORICAL
AIR1900
This Aerospace Information Report (AIR) provides an overview of temperature measurement for engine monitoring systems in various areas of aircraft gas turbine engines while focusing on current usage and methods, systems, selection criteria, and types of hardware. This document emphasizes temperature monitoring for diagnostics and condition monitoring purposes.
Standard

Lessons Learned from Developing, Implementing, and Operating a Health Management System for Propulsion and Drive Train Systems

2011-01-03
CURRENT
AIR1871C
SAE Aerospace Information Report AIR1871 provides valuable insight into lessons learned in the development, implementation, and operation of various health monitoring systems for propulsion engines and drive train systems. This document provides an overview of the lessons learned for ground-based systems, oil debris monitoring systems, lubrication systems, and Health and Usage Monitoring Systems (HUMS) for military and commercial programs. For each case study, this document presents a brief technical description, the design requirements, accomplishments, lessons learned, and future recommendations. The lessons learned presented in this document represent a fragment of the knowledge gained through experience when developing and implementing a propulsion health management system. Previous versions of this document contain additional lessons learned during the 1980’s and 1990’s that may be of additional value to the reader.
Standard

GUIDE TO LIFE USAGE MONITORING AND PARTS MANAGEMENT FOR AIRCRAFT GAS TURBINE ENGINES

1988-02-29
HISTORICAL
AIR1872
The effectiveness of Engine Life Usage Monitoring and Parts Management systems is largely determined by the aircraft-specific requirements. This AIR addresses the following areas: a Safety. b Life-limiting criteria. c Life usage algorithm development. d Data acquisition and management. e Parts life tracking. f Design feedback. g Cost effectiveness. This AIR primarily examines the requirements and techniques currently in use, including: a Parts classification and control requirements. b Failure causes of life-limited parts. c Engine life prediction and usage measurement techniques. d Method validation. e Parts life usage data management. f Lessons learned. g Life usage tracking benefits.
Standard

Guide to Life Usage Monitoring and Parts Management for Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines

1998-05-01
HISTORICAL
AIR1872A
The effectiveness of Engine Life Usage Monitoring and Parts Management systems is largely determined by the aircraft-specific requirements. This document addresses the following areas: a Safety b Life-limiting criteria c Life usage algorithm development d Data acquisition and management e Parts life tracking f Design feedback g Cost effectiveness It primarily examines the requirements and techniques currently in use, and considers the potential impact of new technology to the following areas: a Parts classification and control requirements b Failure causes of life-limited parts c Engine life prediction and usage measurement techniques d Method validation e Parts life usage data management f Lessons learned g Life usage tracking benefits
Standard

A Guide to Aircraft Turbine Engine Vibration Monitoring Systems

2001-07-01
HISTORICAL
AIR1839B
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) is a general overview of typical airborne engine vibration monitoring (EVM) systems with an emphasis on system design considerations. It describes EVM systems currently in use and future trends in EVM development.
Standard

A Guide to Aircraft Turbine Engine Vibration Monitoring Systems

2008-02-16
HISTORICAL
AIR1839C
This Aerospace Information Report (AIR) is a general overview of typical airborne engine vibration monitoring (EVM) systems applicable to fixed or rotary wing aircraft applications, with an emphasis on system design considerations. It describes EVM systems currently in use and future trends in EVM development. The broader scope of Health and Usage Monitoring Systems, (HUMS ) is covered in SAE documents AS5391, AS5392, AS5393, AS5394, AS5395, AIR4174.
Standard

A GUIDE TO AIRCRAFT TURBINE ENGINE VIBRATION MONITORING SYSTEMS

1992-03-10
HISTORICAL
AIR1839A
This Aerospace Information Report (AIR) is a general overview of typical airborne vibration monitoring (AVM) systems with an emphasis on system hardware design considerations. It describes AVM systems currently in use. The purpose of this AIR is to provide information and guidance for the selection, installation, and use of AVM systems and their elements. This AIR is not intended as a legal document but only as a technical guide.
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