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Technical Paper

The Influence of Stroke-to-Bore Ratio and Combustion Chamber Design on Formula One Engines Performance

This paper presents a numerical study of the combustion chamber design influence on the performance of racing engines. The analysis has been applied to the Ferrari 10 cylinder 3.0 liter S.I. engine adopted in Formula One racing. The numerical investigation aimed to asses the influence of stroke-to-bore ratio changes on engine performance within real life design constraints. The effects of the stroke-to-bore ratio on both the volumetric efficiency and the thermal conversion efficiency have been investigated. Flame front area maps, wall areas wetted by burned gases, mean flow field patterns and main turbulent parameters have been compared for two different S/B ratios. Since higher intake and exhaust valve areas per unit displaced volume result in a higher volume of piston bowls, a lower S/B ratio leads to a lower compression ratio, which strongly limits the indicated mean effective pressure.
Technical Paper

On the Numerical Optimization of Acoustic and Brake Engine Performance

One dimensional CFD codes are standard tools for engine development, in particular for the optimization of intake and exhaust systems. However, the accurate prediction of both engine brake performance and acoustic outputs is not that trivial. A quite critical issue is the modeling of complex engine components, such as air cleaners, plenums, exhaust junctions, silencers, etc. A trade-off is required in order to balance the accuracy of the acoustic analysis and the computational cost, particularly when DOE techniques have to be applied. In this paper a methodology for an integrated acoustic and performance analysis of a high performance SI engine is described. An engine simulation model has been built by using a commercial software, and it has been validated against experiments, finding a good agreement. It is remarked that the measurements of both acoustic and engine performance parameters are taken by using standard facilities and equipment, no anechoic test bench is required.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Four Stroke MotoGP Engines

This paper compares different engine solutions for the FIM MotoGP World Championship. Starting from the general guidelines given in a previous paper [2], in this study the specific features of each engine architecture (3 and 4 in line, V4, V5 and V6) are considered. 1-D engine simulations, based on a previously validated model, are extensively used to optimize each solution, as well as to provide a comparison among the engines in terms of dynamometer performances. Some issues concerning engine balance, engine overall dimensions, intake and exhaust system lay-out are discussed. Finally, the influence of the engine on the bike acceleration is calculated by means of a simple simulation at the Mugello track. The comparison has shown slight differences among the proposed configurations. Globally, the V engines, with four and five cylinders, have resulted to be the best solutions.
Technical Paper

Similarity Rules and Parametric Design of Four Stroke MotoGP Engines

The design of 4-stroke engines, complying with the new Motorcycle Road Racing World Championship regulations is discussed. Similarity rules and non dimensional parameters from a database on racing engines are used to define some general guidelines. More specific information about friction losses and combustion is derived from experiments, carried out on a 3-cylinder MotoGP prototype engine. These experiments provided the input needed to set up and validate a base model for 1D thermo-fluid-dynamic calculations. Engine simulation is employed for optimizing several design parameters. A comparison between the proposed methodology and a few design criteria presented in literature is made. Finally, the brake performances of some optimized engines are predicted.
Journal Article

Optimization of a Supercharged Single Cylinder Engine for a Formula SAE Racing Car

The paper reviews the development and optimization of a SI high performance engine, to be used in Formula SAE/Student competitions. The base engine is a single cylinder Yamaha 660cc motorcycle unit, rated at about 48 HP at 6000rpm. Besides the reduction of engine capacity to 600cc and the mounting of the required restrictor, mechanical supercharging has been adopted in order to boost performance. The fluid-dynamic optimization of the engine system has been performed by means of 1D-CFD simulation, coupled to a single-objective genetic algorithm, developed by the authors. The optimization results have been compared to the ones obtained by a well known commercial optimization software, finding a good agreement. Experiments at the brake dynamometer have been carried out, in order to support engine modeling and to demonstrate the reliability of the optimization process.