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Technical Paper

Can Fuel Preparation Affect Engine-Out Hydrocarbon Emissions during an FTP (75CVS) Cycle Test?

2001-03-05
2001-01-1312
The effect of fuel preparation on time-resolved, engine-out hydrocarbon (HC) emissions over a Federal Test Procedure cycle [FTP (75CVS)] for a ULEV vehicle equipped with a 6 cylinder engine has been investigated. Using a single-cone injector, the HC mole fraction in Bag 1 increased by a factor of 3-4 during each of the three accelerations in the first 100 sec after start. No such increases were observed in Bag 3 when the engine was fully warm. The increases during accelerations in Bag 1 were reduced by a factor of 3 when using a Dual-cone fuel injector as a drop-in substitute. The total, tailpipe FTP (75CVS) mass emissions were 25% smaller when using the Dual-cone injector. These results demonstrate that fuel preparation can affect HC emissions from a vehicle very significantly during cold start as has been deduced previously during cold-start tests using a dynamometer-controlled engine.
Technical Paper

Effects of Port-Injection Timing and Fuel Droplet Size on Total and Speciated Exhaust Hydrocarbon Emissions

1993-03-01
930711
The requirement of reducing HC emissions during cold start and improving transient performance has prompted a study of the fuel injection process. Port-fuel-injection with the Intake-valve open using small droplets is a potentially feasible option to achieve the goals. To gain a better understanding of the injection process, the effects of droplet size, injection timing, and coolant temperature on the total and speciated HC emissions were tested In a Single-cylinder engine. It was found that droplet size plays an important role in the total HC emission increase during open-valve injection, especially with cold operation. Large droplets (300 μm SMD) produced a substantial HC increase while small droplets (14 μm SMD) produced no observable increase. Increase In the total HC emissions was always accompanied by an increase in the heavy fuel components in the exhaust gases.
Technical Paper

Time-Resolved Measurement of Speciated Hydrocarbon Emissions During Cold Start of a Spark-Ignited Engine

1994-03-01
940963
Speciated HC emissions from the exhaust system of a production engine without an active catalyst have been obtained with 3 sec time resolution during a 70°F cold start using two control strategies. For the conventional cold start, the emissions were initially enriched in light fuel alkanes and depleted in heavy aromatic species. The light alkanes fell rapidly while the lower vapor pressure aromatics increased over a period of 50 sec. These results indicate early retention of low vapor pressure fuel components in the intake manifold and exhaust system. Loss of higher molecular weight HC species does occur in the exhaust system as shown by experiments in which the exhaust system was preheated to 100° C. The atmospheric reactivity of the exhaust HC emissions for photochemical smog formation increases as the engine warms.
Technical Paper

Effect of Engine Operating Parameters on Hydrocarbon Oxidation in the Exhaust Port and Runner of a Spark-Ignited Engine

1995-02-01
950159
The effect of engine operating parameters (speed, spark timing, and fuel-air equivalence ratio [Φ]) on hydrocarbon (HC) oxidation within the cylinder and exhaust system is examined using propane or isooctane fuel. Quench gas (CO2) is introduced at two locations in the exhaust system (exhaust valve or port exit) to stop the oxidation process. Increasing the speed from 1500 to 2500 RPM at MBT spark timing decreases the total, cylinder-exit HC emissions by ∼50% while oxidation in the exhaust system remains at 40% for both fuels. For propane fuel at 1500 rpm, increasing Φ from 0.9 (fuel lean) to 1.1 (fuel rich) reduces oxidation in the exhaust system from 42% to 26%; at 2500 RPM, exhaust system oxidation decreases from 40% to approximately 0% for Φ = 0.9 and 1.1, respectively. Retarded spark increases oxidation in the cylinder and exhaust system for both fuels. Decreases in total HC emissions are accompanied by increased olefinic content and atmospheric reactivity.
Technical Paper

Compression Ratio and Coolant Temperature Effects on HC Emissions from a Spark- Ignition Engine

1995-02-01
950163
Modern four-valve engines are running at ever higher compression ratios in order to improve fuel efficiency. Hotter cylinder bores also can produce increased fuel economy by decreasing friction due to less viscous oil layers. In this study changes in compression ratio and coolant temperature were investigated to quantify their effect on exhaust emissions. Tests were run on a single cylinder research engine with a port-deactivated 4-valve combustion chamber. Two compression ratios (9.15:1 and 10.0:1) were studied at three air/fuel ratios (12.5, 14.6 and 16.5) at a part load condition (1500 rpm, 3.8 bar IMEP). The effect of coolant temperature (66 °C and 108°C) was studied at the higher compression ratio. The exhaust was sampled and analyzed for both total and speciated hydrocarbons. The speciation analysis provided concentration data for hydrocarbons present in the exhaust containing twelve or fewer carbon atoms.
Technical Paper

Fuel Composition Effects on Hydrocarbon Emissions from a Spark-Ignited Engine - Is Fuel Absorption in Oil Significant?

1995-10-01
952542
Absorption of fuel in engine oil layers has been shown to be a possible source of hydrocarbon (HC) emissions from spark-ignited engines. However, the magnitude of this source in a normally operating engine has not been determined unambiguously. In these experiments, a series of n-alkanes of widely different solubility (n-hexane through undecane) was added (1.5 wt % each) to a Base gasoline (CA Phase 2). Steady-state experiments were carried out at two coolant temperatures (339 and 380 K) using a single-cylinder engine with the combustion chamber of a production V-8. Both total and speciated engine-out HC emissions were measured. The emissions indices of the heavier dopants did not increase relative to hexane at either coolant temperature.
Technical Paper

Effect of Fuel Dissolved in Crankcase Oil on Engine-Out Hydrocarbon Emissions from a Spark-Ignited Engine

1997-10-01
972891
A single-cylinder, spark-ignited engine was run on a certification test gasoline to saturate the oil in the sump with fuel through exposure to blow-by gas. The sump volume was large relative to production engines making its absorption-desorption time constant long relative to the experimental time. The engine was motored at 1500 RPM, 90° C coolant and oil temperature, and 0.43 bar MAP without fuel flow. Exhaust HC concentrations were measured by on-line FID and GC analysis. The total motoring HC emissions were 150 ppmC1; the HC species distribution was heavily weighted to the low-volatility components in the gasoline. No high volatility components were visible. The engine was then fired on isooctane fuel at the above conditions, producing a total engine-out HC emission of 2300 ppmC1 for Φ = 1.0 and MBT spark timing.
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