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Technical Paper

Transient Temperature Measurement of Unburned Gas in an Engine Cylinder Using Laser Interferometry with a Fiber-Optic Sensor

2003-05-19
2003-01-1799
A heterodyne interferometry system with a fiber-optic sensor was developed to measure the temperature history of unburned gas in an engine cylinder. A polarization-preserving fiber and metal mirror were used as the fiber-optic sensor to deliver the test beam to and from the measurement region. This fiber-optic sensor can be assembled in the engine cylinder or the cylinder head without a lot of improvements of an actual engine. The feasibility of our system was sufficient to be applied to temperature history measurement of an unburned gas compressed by flame propagation in an engine cylinder. The resolution of the temperature measurement is approximately 0.7 K, and is dependent on both the sampling clock speed of the A/D converter and the length of the measurement region.
Technical Paper

Combustion Diagnostics of a Spark Ignition Engine by Using Gasket Ion Sensor

2003-05-19
2003-01-1801
A new technique for combustion diagnostics of a spark ignition engine was developed. In this method the ion sensor with the circular configuration was installed into the cylinder head gasket. This sensor is expected to be applied for production engine. The signal measured by the ion sensor was similar with that of cylinder pressure. The peak timing of ion current was consistent with the peak timing of pressure. There was a strong correlation between IMEP and the peak timing of ion current. This sensor is available to detect combustion quality in a spark ignition engine.
Technical Paper

Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Combustion with Dimethyl Ether - Spectrum Analysis of Chemiluminescence

2003-05-19
2003-01-1828
Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion with dimethyl ether has been carried out in a single cylinder engine with a transparent piston. The engine was operated at 800 rpm with a wide-open throttle. The intake-premixed mixture was preheated with an electric heater to promote auto-ignition. HCCI combustion with dimethyl ether indicates multi-stage heat releases. Investigations were conducted with visualization of combustion in the cylinder and detailed and temporal spectroscopic measurements using spectrometer. In order to understand reaction mechanism of auto-ignition and combustion mechanism in HCCI engine, spectrum analysis of chemiluminescence was carried out.
Technical Paper

In-Situ Fuel Concentration Measurement Near Spark Plug by 3.392 μm Infrared Absorption Method-Application to Spark Ignition Engine

2003-03-03
2003-01-1109
This study measured the fuel concentration near a spark plug using a laser infrared absorption method. An IR spark plug sensor with a double-pass measurement length was developed. A He-Ne laser with a wavelength of 3.392 μm, which coincides with the absorption line of hydrocarbons, was used as the light source. In order to confirm the measurement accuracy, the concentrations of a methane-air mixture were measured in a compression-expansion engine. Then, the IR spark plug sensor was used for measurements in a 4-stroke spark-ignition engine fuelled with isooctane. The air/fuel ratio measured using this system clearly agreed with the mean air/fuel ratio.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Turbulence on Combustion in Cylinder of a Spark-Ignition Engine=Evaluation of Entrainment Model

1988-02-01
880128
A turbulent entrainment model is considered to be reasonable for the combustion in a spark-ignition engine. For this kind of model, it is important to estimate the turbulence characteristics, turbulent burning velocity, flame surface area and several empirical constants. Nevertheless, the examination of these values have not been examined sufficiently. In this study, a combustion model was proposed, and initiation of flame propagation, burning process of an eddy, scale of turbulence and turbulent burning velocity were discussed in detail. This model was examined under various conditions of engine speed (600-1200rpm), compression ratio (3.2-4.8) and ignition timing. The calculation results of mass fraction burned, burn rate and burn duration were in good agreement with the experimental ones. It was found that the concept of such a turbulent entrainment model was valid for predicting the combustion in a spark-ignition engine.
Technical Paper

Mixture Formation Process in a Spark-Ignition Engine with Ethanol Blended Gasoline

2009-06-15
2009-01-1957
In this study, fuel concentration measurements in a spark-ignition (SI) engine with ethanol blended gasoline were carried out using an optical sensor installed in the spark plug with laser infrared absorption technique. The spark plug sensor for in-situ fuel concentration measurement was applied to a port injected SI engine. The molar absorption coefficients of ethanol blended gasoline were determined for various pressures and temperatures in advance using a constant volume vessel with electric heating system. Ethanol blended gasoline with high volumetric ratios shows lower molar absorption coefficients due to lower molar absorption coefficients of ethanol. The molar absorption coefficients of ethanol blended gasoline can be estimated by considering the molar fraction of each component.
Technical Paper

Effect of Fuel Injection Parameters on Engine Performance and Emissions of a Supercharged Producer Gas-Diesel Dual Fuel Engine

2009-06-15
2009-01-1848
This study investigated the effect of some pilot fuel injection parameters, like injection timing, injection pressure and injection quantity on engine performance and exhaust emissions of a supercharged producer gas-diesel dual fuel engine. The engine has been tested to be used as a co-generation engine and its power output is an important matter. Experiments have been done to optimize the injection timing, injection pressure and injection quantity for the maximization of engine power. At constant injection pressures, there is an optimum amount of pilot injection quantity for that maximum engine power is developed without knocking and within the limit of maximum cylinder pressure. Above or below of that amount engine power is decreased. Higher injection pressures generally show better results than lower ones. However, good results can also be obtained with lower injection pressure, if maximum power timings can be selected.
Technical Paper

Effect of EGR on Combustion and Exhaust Emissions in Supercharged Dual-Fuel Natural Gas Engine Ignited with Diesel Fuel

2009-06-15
2009-01-1832
The combustion and exhaust emissions characteristics of a supercharged dual-fuel natural gas engine with a single cylinder were analyzed. We focused on EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation) to achieve higher thermal efficiency and lower exhaust emissions. The combustion of diesel fuel (gas oil) as ignition sources was visualized using a high-speed video camera from the bottom of a quartz piston. The luminous intensity and flame decreased as the EGR rate increased. Furthermore, the ignition delay became longer due to the EGR. Characteristics of the combustion and exhaust emissions were investigated with changing EGR rates under supercharged conditions. The indicated mean effective pressure and thermal efficiency decreased with increasing EGR rate. In addition, NOx emissions decreased due to the EGR. In this study two-stage combustion was observed.
Technical Paper

Visualization of Autoignited Kernel and Propagation of Pressure Wave during Knocking Combustion in a Hydrogen Spark-Ignition Engine

2009-06-15
2009-01-1773
Investigation of knocking combustion in a hydrogen spark-ignition engine is one of the major challenges for future vehicle development. The knock phenomenon in a Spark-Ignition (SI) engine is caused by autoignition of the unburned gas ahead of the flame. The explosive combustion of the end-gas creates a pressure wave that leads to damage of the cylinder wall and the piston head of the engine. We observed autoignition in the end-gas region due to compression by the propagating flame front using a high-speed colour video camera through the optically accessible cylindrical quartz window on the top of the cylinder head. Moreover, a high-speed monochrome video camera operating at a speed of 250, 000 frame/s was used to measure the pressure wave propagation. The goal of this research was to improve our ability to describe the effect of the autoignition process on the end-gas and propagating pressure wave during knocking combustion with the help of a high-speed video camera.
Technical Paper

Effects of Injection Pressure, Timing and EGR on Combustion and Emissions Characteristics of Diesel PCCI Engine

2011-08-30
2011-01-1769
Effects of injection parameters on combustion and emission characteristics of diesel PCCI engine operating on optical and test engine was investigated. PCCI combustion was achieved through slightly narrow included angle injector, low compression ratio coupled with exhaust gas recirculation. Analysis based on diesel spray evolution, combustion process visualization and analysis was carried out. Spray penetration was evaluated and related to the exhaust emissions. Advancing the injection timing and EGR extended the ignition delay, decreased NOx emissions and increased HC, smoke and CO emissions. Higher injection pressure led to low emissions of NOx, smoke, HC and comparable CO. Optimum spray targeting position for minimum emission was identified. Impingement on the piston surface led to deterioration of emissions and increased fuel consumption while spray targeting the upper edge of Derby hat wall showed improvement in emission and engine performance.
Technical Paper

Ignition, Combustion and Exhaust Emission Characteristics of Micro-pilot Ignited Dual-fuel Engine Operated under PREMIER Combustion Mode

2011-08-30
2011-01-1764
The objective of this study is to investigate the performance and emissions in a pilot-ignited supercharged dual-fuel engine, fueled with different types of gaseous fuels under various equivalence ratios. It is found that if certain operating conditions are maintained, conventional dual-fuel engine combustion mode can be transformed to the combustion mode with the two-stage heat release. This mode of combustion was called the PREMIER (PREmixed Mixture Ignition in the End-gas Region) combustion. During PREMIER combustion, initially, the combustion progresses as the premixed flame propagation and then, due to the mixture autoignition in the end-gas region, ahead of the propagating flame front, the transition occurs with the rapid increase in the heat release rate.
Technical Paper

Effect of Bio-Gas Contents on SI Combustion for a Co-Generation Engine

2015-09-01
2015-01-1946
Bio-gas as an internal combustion (I.C.) engine fuel has many advantages such as cheaper fuel cost, low emission levels and especially the neutral recirculation loop of carbon dioxide, which is one of the principal factors in global warming. In this study, positive potentialities of bio-gas were investigated using a micro co-generation engine. The mixing ratio of methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) was changed to simulate various types of bio-gases. Intake air and fuel flow rates were controlled to change the equivalence ratio. The engine load condition could be changed with the electric output power used. Base on the result, the higher CO2 content rate slowed down the engine speed in the same load condition and the combustion speed generally decreased under the same load condition with maintaining the engine speed. However thermal efficiency increased with lean burn conditions and NOX emission decreased with higher CO2 mixing rates.
Technical Paper

Combustion Diagnostics Using Time-Series Analysis of Radical Emissions in a Practical Engine

2015-11-17
2015-32-0748
The objective of this study is to investigate the initial flame propagation characteristics of turbulent flame in an engine cylinder through time-series analysis of radical emissions. A spark plug with optical fiber was developed in this study. The plug sensor is M12 type that makes it possible to mount in practical engine. The spark plug sensor can detect radical emissions in time-resolved spectra through time-series spectroscopic measurement. In this spectra, some kinds of radical emissions such as OH*(306nm), CH*(431nm) and C2*(517nm) based on principle of chemiluminescence are observed. In this study, the spark plug sensor was applied to both compression-expansion machine (CEM) and practical engine. As a result of CEM with bottom viewed high-speed camera, three kinds of spectra could be detected.
Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Observations of Chemiluminescence in Turbulent Premixed Flames Using a Spark Plug Sensor with an Optical Fiber

2013-10-14
2013-01-2578
The purpose of this study was to characterize the air/fuel ratio (AFR) of turbulent premixed flames in a spark-ignition (SI) engine. We developed a spark plug sensor with an optical fiber to detect the chemiluminescence spectra, specifically the intensity of the spectral lines related to OH*, CH*, and C2* free radicals. The sensor was composed of a sapphire window and optical fiber and is applicable to automobile SI engines. Measurements of the chemiluminescence intensity from OH*, CH*, and C2* radicals were obtained in turbulent premixed flames with a propane-air mixture for different AFRs in a compression-expansion machine (CEM). The performance of the spark plug sensor was compared with a Cassegrain reflector using an intensified charge-coupled device. The results showed good agreement with measurements obtained using the Cassegrain reflector. The spark plug sensor was shown to be useful for measuring chemiluminescence of turbulent premixed flames in an SI engine.
Technical Paper

Mixing Process of Direct Injection Hydrogen Jet in a Constant Volume Vessel by Using Spark-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

2013-10-14
2013-01-2526
Hydrogen spark-ignition (SI) engines based on direct-injection (DI) have been investigated because of their potential for high thermal efficiency and solving the problems related to knocking, backfiring, and pre-ignition. Wide range flammability limits in hydrogen engine enable smooth engine operation for a very lean mixture with low NOX. However, a too lean mixture may increase ignition delay and causes severe cyclic variations. There is a possibility that the turbulence occurred during injection of fuel surround the spark plug in the combustion chamber is major contributor to this phenomenon. To overcome this problem, a better understanding of the spark discharge and spark ignition during transient hydrogen jet is necessary. Therefore, it is very important to study an effect of local equivalence ratio and behavior of spark discharge in SI engine. This paper describes a mixing process of hydrogen jet using spark-induced breakdown spectroscopy (SIBS) in a constant volume vessel.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of Natural Gas-Diesel Dual Fuel Engine with End Gas Ignition

2018-04-03
2018-01-0199
The present study helps to understand the local combustion characteristics of PREmixed Mixture Ignition in the End-gas Region (PREMIER) combustion mode while using increasing amount of natural gas as a diesel substitute in conventional CI engine. In order to reduce NOx emission and diesel fuel consumption micro-pilot diesel injection in premixed natural gas-air mixture is a promising technique. New strategy has been employed to simulate dual fuel combustion which uses well established combustion models. Main focus of the simulation is at detection of an end gas ignition, and creating an unified modeling approach for dual fuel combustion. In this study G-equation flame propagation model is used with detailed chemistry in order to detect end-gas ignition in overall low temperature combustion. This combustion simulation model is validated using comparison with experimental data for dual fuel engine.
Technical Paper

Chemical Kinetics and Computational Fluid-Dynamics Analysis of H2/CO/CO2/CH4 Syngas Combustion and NOx Formation in a Micro-Pilot-Ignited Supercharged Dual Fuel Engine

2017-09-04
2017-24-0027
A chemical kinetics and computational fluid-dynamics (CFD) analysis was performed to evaluate the combustion of syngas derived from biomass and coke-oven solid feedstock in a micro-pilot ignited supercharged dual-fuel engine under lean conditions. For this analysis, a reduced syngas chemical kinetics mechanism was constructed and validated by comparing the ignition delay and laminar flame speed data with those obtained from experiments and other detail chemical kinetics mechanisms available in the literature. The reaction sensitivity analysis was conducted for ignition delay at elevated pressures in order to identify important chemical reactions that govern the combustion process. We have confirmed the statements of other authors that HO2+OH=H2O+O2, H2O2+M=OH+OH+M and H2O2+H=H2+HO2 reactions showed very high sensitivity during high-pressure ignition delay times and had considerable uncertainty.
Technical Paper

Fundamental Study on Combustion Diagnostics Using a Spark Plug as Ion Probe

2000-10-16
2000-01-2828
In order to investigate the relation between ion current and combustion characteristics, the ion current signal from a spark plug as an ion probe, pressure history and flame development were measured in a homogeneous propane-air mixture in closed combustion chambers. The flame propagation was measured by Schlieren photography technique. When negative bias is applied to the central electrode of the spark plug, the ion current flows only due to an early flame kernel existing near the spark plug. When positive bias is applied to the central electrode, the ion current flows from the central electrode to the combustion chamber wall and to the ground electrode. Consequently, the ion current is dominated by the contact area between the flame and the combustion chamber wall. The appearance period of ion-current is related to the combustion duration. This method was applied to the combustion analysis of the spark ignition engine.
Technical Paper

Turbulent Premixed Flames Under Lean Conditions Studied with Ion Current Measurement in a Homogeneous Charge Spark-Ignition Engine

2000-06-19
2000-01-1940
The structures of the turbulent premixed flame in the engine cylinder under lean burn conditions were investigated using ion probe method. The flow fields were measured with an LDA for two tumble ratios and two compression ratios. And ion-current signal was analyzed to discuss the interaction between the turbulence and the flame structure. The effects of turbulence and equivalence ratio on the characteristic values of the turbulent flame, that is to say number of ion-current peaks, thickness of flame front and thickness of burning zone of the flamelet, were investigated. In normal combustion, the structure of the turbulent flame front is almost the same as the laminar flame. In the lean limit, the flamelet is broken and stretched and then the structure may change.
Technical Paper

Residual Gas Fraction Measurement inside Engine Cylinder Using Infrared Absorption Method with Spark-plug Sensor

2007-07-23
2007-01-1849
In this study, residual gas fraction measurements in a spark-ignition engine were carried out using an optical sensor installed in the spark plug with infrared absorption method. The residual gas fraction inside engine cylinder is proportional to the CO2 concentration. Infrared absorption method was applied and an infrared lamp and optical filter (center wavelength: around 4.3 μm) that coincides with the absorption lines of CO2 was used as a light source.The molar absorption coefficient of CO2 is discussed and compared to results in the HITRAN database. The effect of water vapor absorption doesn't affect the absorption of CO2. The absorption characteristics of CO2 were determined in advance using a constant volume vessel. Molar absorption coefficient depends on the CO2 concentration and ambient pressure and temperature, and wavelength of absorption line.
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