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Technical Paper

2-Stroke Diesel Engine for Light Aircraft: IDI vs. DI Combustion Systems

The paper presents a numerical study aimed at converting a commercial lightweight 2-Stroke Indirect Injection (IDI) Diesel aircraft engine to Direct Injection(DI). First, a CFD-1D model of the IDI engine was built and calibrated against experiments at the dynamometer bench. This model is the baseline for the comparison between the IDI and the DI combustion systems. The DI chamber design was supported by extensive 3D-CFD simulations, using a customized version of the KIVA-3V code. Once a satisfactory combustion system was identified, its heat release and wall transfer patterns were entered in the CFD-1D model, and a comparison between the IDI and the DI engine was performed, considering the same Air-Fuel Ratio limit. It was found that the DI combustion system yields several advantages: better take-off performance (higher power output), lower fuel consumption at cruise conditions, improved altitude performance, reduced cooling requirements.
Technical Paper

Comparison among different 2-Stage Supercharging systems for HSDI Diesel engines

2-stage supercharging applied to HSDI Diesel engines appears a promising solution for enhancing rated power, low end torque, transient response and hence the launch characteristics of a vehicle. However, many open points still remain, in particular about the impact on emissions control and fuel economy at partial load conditions, generally requiring both high airflow and high EGR rates. The paper analyzes and compares two types of 2-stage supercharging systems: a) two turbochargers of different size; b) one turbocharger coupled to a positive displacement compressor. The goal of the paper is to assess pro and cons of the most feasible configurations for a typical automobile Diesel engine, complying with Euro V regulations and beyond. The base engine is the 2.8L, 4 cylinder in-line unit produced by VM Motori (Cento, Italy), equipped by a standard variable geometry turbocharger.
Technical Paper

2-Stroke Externally Scavenged Engines for Range Extender Applications

In this work, the authors assess the potential of the 2-stroke concept applied to Range Extender engines, proposing 3 different configurations: 1) Supercharged, Compression Ignition; 2) Turbocharged, Compression Ignition; 3) Supercharged, Gasoline Direct Injection. All the engines feature a single power cylinder of 0.49l, external air feed by piston pump and an innovative induction system. The scavenging is of the Loop type, without poppet valves, and with a 4-stroke like lubrication system (no crankcase pump). Engine design has been supported by CFD simulations, both 1D (engine cycle analysis) and 3D (scavenging, injection and combustion calculations). All the numerical models used in the study are calibrated against experiments, carried out on engines as similar as possible to the proposed ones.
Technical Paper

Commercial Vehicles: New Diesel Engine Concepts for Euro VI and Beyond

The paper presents a numerical investigation, aimed to explore the potential of 2-stroke Diesel engines, able to meet Euro VI requirements, for application to medium size commercial vehicles (power rate: 80 kW at 2600 rpm, max. torque 420 Nm from 1200 to 1400 rpm). The study is based on experimental performance of a highly developed 4-stroke engine. Two different designs are considered: Loop and Uniflow scavenging, the latter obtained through an opposed piston configuration. In both cases, no poppet valves are used, and the lubrication is provided by a 4-stroke-like oil sump. The study started with the development of a 4-stroke EURO VI engine, on the basis of a previous EURO IV version. A prototype of the new engine (named 430) was built and tested.
Technical Paper

Comparison Between Two Combustion Chambers for a Motorcycle Racing Engine

An experimental and computational analysis has been performed on the combustion chamber of a two cylinder, four stroke, four valve, spark ignition engine developed by Ducati Motor SpA for the Super Sport Championship. Two cylinder head configurations have been analyzed by using a three dimensional CFD code. Port and valve assemblies do not change. Only the combustion chamber surface changes in order to improve the intake flow. Head flow performances in terms of permeability have been determined by computing the steady discharge coefficients at different valve lifts. These values have also been measured on a steady flow test bench. Head flow performances in terms of flow conditioning, i.e. the attitude to promote tumbling and enhance combustion, have been determined by computing the equivalent solid body tumbling number of the flow field at intake bottom dead center.
Technical Paper

The Modular Engine Concept: a Cost Effective Way to Reduce Pollutant Emissions and Fuel Consuption

A promising technique to enhance fuel efficiency of large capacity S.I. engines is the de-activation of some cylinders at partial load, through the cut-out of fuel metering and a specific control of the airflow. Thanks to the ensuing reduction of throttling losses (the active cylinders operate at a much higher load), fuel consumption can be reduced, without any negative perception from the driver. Such a technique has been already applied successfully on some production engines, at the cost of some additional complication on the valve-train system. The application analyzed in this study is a little bit different, being aimed to reduce both fuel consumption and emissions, with a minimum impact on engine design. Larger fuel savings may be obtained by coupling the cylinder de-activation with VVT.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation on Biodiesel from Microalgae as Fuel for Diesel Engines

Biodiesel from Algae appears as an almost ideal solution to address the problem of decreasing availability of conventional fossil fuels, as well as to reduce the impact in terms of CO2 of internal combustion engines. In comparison to other biodiesels, algae do not compete for the land use with food cultures, and they have an excellent oil yield. Despite the significant amount of technical reports about the production process of algal biodiesel, detailed information about the application to current production engines is almost completely missing. The present paper describes the experimental campaign carried out on a current production 4-cylinder, 4-stroke naturally aspirated Diesel engine, running on standard Diesel oil and on a blend made up of 20% of oil manufactured by transesterification of Microalgae (B20). Performance and emission parameters have been measured over the whole engine operating range.