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Technical Paper

Effect of Turbulence and Initial Temperature Inhomogeneity on Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Combustion

2006-10-16
2006-01-3318
A 0.5 liter optical HCCI engine firing a mixture of n-heptane (50%) and iso-octane (50%) with air/fuel ratio of 3 is studied using large eddy simulation (LES) and laser diagnostics. Formaldehyde and OH LIF and in-cylinder pressure were measured in the experiments to characterize the ignition process. The LES made use of a detailed chemical kinetic mechanism that consists of 233 species and 2019 reactions. The auto-ignition simulation is coupled with LES by the use of a renormalized reaction progress variable. Systematic LES study on the effect of initial temperature inhomogeneity and turbulence intensity has been carried out to delineate their effect on the ignition process. It was shown that the charge under the present experimental condition would not be ignited without initial temperature inhomogeneity. Increasing temperature inhomogeneity leads to earlier ignition whereas increasing turbulence intensity would retard the ignition.
Technical Paper

Reformed Methanol Gas as Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engine Fuel

2004-10-25
2004-01-2991
Hydrogen has been proposed as a possible fuel for automotive applications. Methanol is one of the most efficient ways to store and handle hydrogen. By catalytic reformation it is possible to convert methanol into hydrogen and carbon monoxide. This paper reports an experimental investigation of Reformed Methanol Gas as Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine fuel. The aim of the experimental study is to investigate the possibility to run an HCCI engine on a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide, to study the combustion phasing, the efficiency and the formation of emissions. Reformed Methanol Gas (RMG) was found to be a possible fuel for an HCCI engine. The heat release rate was lower than with pure hydrogen but still high compared to other fuels. The interval of possible start of combustion crank angles was found to be narrow but wider than for hydrogen. The high rate of heat release limited the operating range to lean (λ>3) cases as with hydrogen.
Technical Paper

Knock Modeling: an Integrated Tool for Detailed Chemistry and Engine Cycle Simulation

2003-10-27
2003-01-3122
For the simultaneous evaluation of the influence on engine knock of both chemical conditions and global operating parameters, a combined tool was developed. Thus, a two-zone kinetic model for SI engine combustion calculation (Ignition) was implemented into an engine cycle simulation commercial code. The combined model predictions are compared with experimental data from a single-cylinder test engine. This shows that the model can accurately predict the knock onset and in-cylinder pressure and temperature for different lambda conditions, with and without EGR. The influence of nitric oxide amount from residual gas in relation with knock is further investigated. The created numerical tool represents a useful support for experimental measurements, reducing the number of tests required to assess the proper engine control strategies.
Technical Paper

Prediction Tool for the Ion Current in SI Combustion

2003-10-27
2003-01-3136
In this work, constant volume combustion is studied using a zero-dimensional FORTRAN code, which is a wide-ranging chemical kinetic simulation that allows a closed system of gases to be described on the basis of a set of initial conditions. The model provides an engine- or reactor-like environment in which the engine simulations allow for a variable system volume and heat transfer both to and from the system. The combustion chamber is divided into two zones as burned and unburned ones, which are separated by an assumed thin flame front in the combustion model used for this work. Equilibrium assumptions have been adopted for the modeling of the thermal ionization, where Saha's equation was derived for singly ionized molecules. The investigation is focused on the thermal ionization of NO as well as for other species. The outputs generated by the model are temperature profiles, species concentration profiles, ionization degree and an electron density for each zone.
Technical Paper

Hydrogen as Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engine Fuel

2004-06-08
2004-01-1976
Hydrogen has been proposed as a possible fuel for automotive applications. This paper reports an experimental investigation of hydrogen as HCCI engine fuel. The aim of the experimental study is to investigate the possibility to run an HCCI engine on an extremely fast burning fuel such as hydrogen as well as to study the efficiency, the combustion phasing and the formation of emissions. The experiments were conducted on a single-cylinder research engine with a displacement volume of 1.6 litres and pancake combustion chamber geometry. Variation of lambda, engine speed, compression ratio and intake temperature were parts of the experimental setting. The engine was operated in Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) mode and as comparison also in Spark Ignition (SI) mode. Hydrogen was found to be a possible fuel for an HCCI engine. The heat release rate was extremely high and the interval of possible start of combustion crank angles was found to be narrow.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Unconventional Piston Movement on SI Engine Combustion and Emissions

2005-04-11
2005-01-1170
A major trend in current automotive research is hybridization of the power supply. This combination of electrical machine and combustion engine results, in some hybridization topologies, in a total decoupling of the combustion engine from the transmission. When the engine is decoupled from the transmission a new degree of freedom arises in engine design. The piston movement does not have to follow an evenly rotating shaft any more. It can be altered by the generator to achieve a movement found to be better from the point of efficiency or environmental concerns. Modelling work showed a potential of lowered NO emissions if the expansion could be delayed. The experimental study, conducted in a two piston Alvar engine, showed that the state of the art electrical machine (EM) propelling one of the crankshafts was too weak to change the crankshaft speed in an extent to give the fast volume changes required to change the emissions of the internal combustion engine (ICE).
Technical Paper

The Influence of Nitric Oxide on the Occurrence of Autoignition in the End Gas of Spark Ignition Engines

2002-10-21
2002-01-2699
Full cycle simulations of a spark ignition engine running on a primary reference fuel have been performed using a two-zone model. A detailed kinetic mechanism is taken into account in each of the zones, while the propagating flame front is calculated from a Wiebe function. The initial conditions for the unburned gas zone were calculated as a mixture of fresh gas and rest gas. The composition of the burned gas zone at the end of the last engine cycle, including nitric oxide emissions, was taken as rest gas. The simulations confirm that the occurrence of autoignition in the end gas is sensitive on the amount of nitric oxide in the rest gas of the spark ignition engine. The comparison of autoignition timings calculated for a single cylinder test engine are getting more accurate if the nitric oxide in the initial gases is taken into account.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Soot Formation Under Diesel Engine Conditions Using a Detailed Kinetic Soot Model

1998-02-01
981022
Numerical simulations of diesel engine combustion and emission formation have been performed using a detailed soot model. Operating conditions typical for modern truck-size engines have been investigated, and calculated results show encouraging agreement with experimental data for soot in engine exhaust gas. Predictions of details in the soot formation process compare well with detailed experimental data from the literature. The modelling of the soot/flow-field interaction is based on a flamelet approach. Source terms of the soot volume fraction are taken from a flamelet library using a presumed probability density function and integrating over mixture fraction space. In order to save computer storage and CPU time, the flamelet library of sources was constructed using a multi-parameter fitting procedure resulting in simple algebraic equations and a proper set of parameters.
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