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Technical Paper

A Comparison Between Different Hybrid Powertrain Solutions for an European Mid-Size Passenger Car

Different hybrid powertrains for a European mid-size passenger car were evaluated in this paper through numerical simulation. Different degrees of hybridizations, from micro to mild hybrids, and different architectures and power sources management strategies were taken into account, in order to obtain a preliminary assessment of the potentialities of different hybrid systems for the European passenger car market. Both diesel and gasoline internal combustion engines were considered: a 1.6 dm₃ Common Rail turbocharged diesel, and a 1.4 dm₃ spark ignition turbocharged engine, equipped with an innovative Variable Valve Actuation system. Diesel hybrid powertrains, although being subject to NOx emissions constraints that could jeopardize their benefits, offered substantial advantages in comparison with gasoline hybrid powertrains. Potentialities for fuel consumption reductions up to 25% over the NEDC were highlighted, approaching the 2020 EU 95 g/km CO₂ target.
Technical Paper

Comparison Between Direct and Indirect Fuel Injection in an S.I. Two-Stroke Engine

Gasoline direct injection in two-stroke engines has led to even more advantageous results, in comparison with four-stroke engines, as far as unburned hydrocarbon emissions and fuel consumption are concerned. A new electronically controlled injection system has therefore been fitted in a crankcase-scavenged two-stroke engine, previously set up with indirect injection equipment. The comparison between the performance of the two gasoline feeding systems has highlighted the potential of the direct injection strategy. The direct injection system here tested has allowed the optimization of the engine torque characteristic at wide open throttle operating conditions. Moreover, the engine original exhaust system, has been replaced with an expansion-chamber exhaust-pipe system, in order to evaluate the impact of direct gasoline injection also with these optimized exhaust configuration.
Technical Paper

A Contribution to Engine and Vehicle Performance Prediction

The application of computational methods for the development of the whole engine-vehicle system has been evaluated in this paper, to highlight the potential of computer simulation techniques applied to the analysis of engine-vehicle matching. First, engine performance was simulated using a one-dimensional fluid dynamic code, and predicted data were compared to experimental results, to assess the accuracy of the engine computer model not only as far as gross engine performance parameters are concerned, but also for the prediction of pressure values at several locations inside the engine. The simulation was also extended to the whole engine operating range, including part-load operating conditions. Afterwards, a vehicle simulation code was employed, to predict vehicle performance and fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

The Potential of Electric Exhaust Gas Turbocharging for HD Diesel Engines

The potential of an electric assisted turbocharger for a heavy-duty diesel engine has been analyzed in this work, in order to evaluate the turbo-lag reductions and the fuel consumption savings that could be obtained in an urban bus for different operating conditions. The aim of the research project was to replace the current variable geometry turbine with a fixed geometry turbine, connecting an electric machine which can be operated both as an electric motor and as an electric generator to the turbo shaft. The electric motor can be used to speed up the turbocharger during the acceleration transients and reduce the turbo-lag, while the generator can be used to recover the excess exhaust energy when the engine is operated near the rated speed, in order to produce electrical power that can be used to drive engine auxiliaries. In this way the engine efficiency can be improved and a kind of “electric turbocompounding” can be obtained.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Different Internal EGR Solutions for Small Diesel Engines

Although the use of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) is nowadays mandatory for automotive diesel engines to achieve NOx emissions levels complying with more and more stringent legislation requirements, electronically controlled EGR systems still represent an expensive technology, often unsuitable for small diesel engines for off-road applications or for two/three wheelers. An interesting option for these categories of small diesel engines is the so-called “internal EGR”, which is obtained by modifying the intake or the exhaust valve lift profile, in order to increase the fraction of exhaust residuals at the end of the intake stroke. Different valve lift profiles were therefore evaluated for a 2 cylinders, 700 cc, Lombardini IDI diesel engine, equipping a light 4 wheelers vehicle.
Technical Paper

A DoE Analysis on the Effects of Compression Ratio, Injection Timing, Injector Nozzle Hole Size and Number on Performance and Emissions in a Diesel Marine Engine

A DoE analysis was carried out to investigate the effects of the compression ratio, injection timing, injector nozzle hole size and number on performance and emissions in a diesel marine engine, aiming to find out the optimal combination between all the abovementioned parameters. The study was performed on a six cylinder in line, 100 liter total displacement, diesel marine engine, by means of a 1-D engine simulation fluid-dynamic code, coupled with a multi-zone combustion model for oxide of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate (PM) prediction. A preliminary detailed validation process, based on an extensive experimental data set, was carried out on the engine model concerning, in particular, the predicted heat release rate, the in-cylinder pressure trace and NOx emissions for several operating points of a propeller load curve.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Multiple Injection Strategies for the Reduction of Emissions, Noise and BSFC of a DI CR Small Displacement Non-Road Diesel Engine

The influence of different multiple injection strategies on the emissions, combustion noise and BSFC (brake specific fuel consumption) of a small non-road diesel engine prototype equipped with a Common Rail (CR) fuel injection system has been analysed. The two most critical operating points according to the ISO 8178 - C1 test cycle as far as the exhaust emissions are concerned (Intermediate Speed/Full Load; Rated Speed/Full Load) were considered. Different injection strategies, each with a fixed number of consecutive injections (up to 4), were tested for the selected operating points. It was found that multiple injection strategies can be very effective also for small displacement non-road diesel engines in reducing particulate matter (PM), NOx and noise levels without increasing fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

The Potential of Dual Stage Turbocharging and Miller Cycle for HD Diesel Engines

The potential of dual stage turbocharging and Miller Cycle for a six cylinders in line, 13 litres displacement, HD diesel engine was analysed in this work, by means of a 1-D engine simulation fluid dynamic code, coupled with a multi-zone combustion model for NOx and PM prediction. After a detailed validation process, based on an extensive experimental data set, the engine model was then used to predict the effects on engine performance and emission characteristics of different combinations of dual stage turbochargers, engine compression ratio values and intake valve lift profiles. The potential for an appreciable increase in the engine power, with a slight decrease in the specific fuel consumption and a remarkable decrease of NOx specific emissions was demonstrated.
Technical Paper

Influence of Multiple Injection Strategies on Emissions, Combustion Noise and BSFC of a DI Common Rail Diesel Engine

High pressure common-rail injection systems nowadays allow a very high degree of flexibility in the timing and quantity control of multiple injections, which can be used to obtain significant reductions in engine noise and emissions. The aim of this study is to develop a better understanding of the relationship between injection strategies and the combustion and emission formation process. Some multiple injection strategies (pilot-pilot-main and pilot-main-after) have therefore been analyzed to highlight their influence on soot, NOx, combustion noise and bsfc (brake specific fuel consumption) on a passenger car DI Diesel engine prototype. One operating point (2000×2 rpm/bar) was analyzed for the pilot-pilot-main injection strategy while two operating points (1500×5 and 2500×8 rpm/bar) were tested for the pilot-main-after injection strategy.
Technical Paper

Effect of Compression Ratio and Injection Pressure on Emissions and Fuel Consumption of a Small Displacement Common Rail Diesel Engine

The effect of variations of compression ratio (CR) and injection pressure (IP) on the emissions and performance of a small displacement common rail off-road diesel engine was evaluated. The operating point corresponding to the 5th mode of the ISO 8178 - C1 test cycle (intermediate speed / full load) was considered, since it represents one of the most critical operating conditions as far as exhaust emissions are concerned. The main effect of a reduction of the compression ratio, for a fixed injection timing, was found to be, as expected, an increase in NOx emissions along with a decrease of PM emissions, with a substantial redefinition of the PM-NOx trade-off curve; the choice of a proper value for the start of injection can therefore lead to a better compromise among pollutant emissions, although remarkable variations in BSFC and combustion noise must be taken into account.