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Journal Article

A Three-Parameter Transient 1D Catalyst Model

Interactions between in-cylinder combustion and emission aftertreatment need to be understood for optimizing the overall powertrain system. Numerical investigations can aid this process. For this purpose, simple and numerically fast, but still accurate models are needed for in-cylinder combustion and exhaust aftertreatment. The chemical processes must be represented in sufficient detail to predict engine power, fuel consumption, and tailpipe emission levels of NOx, soot, CO and unburned hydrocarbons. This paper reports on a new transient one-dimensional catalyst model. This model makes use of a detailed kinetic mechanism to describe the catalytic reactions. A single-channel or a set of representative channels are used in the presented approach. Each channel is discretized into a number of cells. Each cell is treated as a perfectly stirred reactor (PSR) with a thin film layer for washcoat treatment. Heat and mass transport coefficients are calculated from Nusselt and Sherwood laws.
Technical Paper

Modeling Diesel Engine Combustion With Detailed Chemistry Using a Progress Variable Approach

In this work, we present an unsteady flamelet progress variable approach for diesel engine CFD combustion modeling. The progress variable is based on sensible enthalpy integrated over the flamelet and describes the transient flamelet ignition process. By using an unsteady flamelet library for the progress variable, the impact of local effects, for example variations in the turbulence field, effects of wall heat transfer etc. on the autoignition chemistry can be considered on a cell level. The coupling between the unsteady flamelet library and the transport equation for total enthalpy follows the ideas of the representative interactive flamelet approach. Since the progress variable gives a direct description of the state in the flamelet, the method can be compared to having a flamelet in each computational cell in the CFD grid.
Technical Paper

Simulating a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engine Fuelled with a DEE/EtOH Blend

We numerically simulate a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine fuelled with a blend of ethanol and diethyl ether by means of a stochastic reactor model (SRM). A 1D CFD code is employed to calculate gas flow through the engine, whilst the SRM accounts for combustion and convective heat transfer. The results of our simulations are compared to experimental measurements obtained using a Caterpillar CAT3401 single-cylinder Diesel engine modified for HCCI operation. We consider emissions of CO, CO2 and unburnt hydrocarbons as functions of the crank angle at 50% heat release. In addition, we establish the dependence of ignition timing, combustion duration, and emissions on the mixture ratio of the two fuel components. Good qualitative agreement is found between our computations and the available experimental data.
Technical Paper

Studying HCCI Combustion and its Cyclic Variations Versus Heat Transfer, Mixing and Discretization using a PDF Based Approach

The ability to predict cyclic variations is certainly useful in studying engine operating regimes, especially under unstable operating conditions where one single cycle may differ from another substantially and a single simulation may give rather misleading results. PDF based models such as Stochastic Reactor Models (SRM) are able to model cyclic variations, but these may be overpredicted if discretization is too coarse. The range of cyclic variations and the dependence of the ability to correctly assess their mean values on the number of cycles simulated were investigated. In most cases, the average values were assessed correctly on the basis of as few as 10 cycles, but assessing the complete range of cyclic variations could require a greater number of cycles. In studying average values, variations due too coarse discretization being employed are smaller than variations originating from changes in physical parameters, such as heat transfer and mixing parameters.
Technical Paper

Modelling a Dual-Fuelled Multi-Cylinder HCCI Engine Using a PDF Based Engine Cycle Simulator

Operating the HCCI engine with dual fuels with a large difference in auto-ignition characteristics (octane number) is one way to control the HCCI operation. The effect of octane number on combustion, emissions and engine performance in a 6 cylinder SCANIA truck engine, fuelled with n-heptane and isooctane, and running in HCCI mode, are investigated numerically and compared with measurements taken from Olsson et al. [SAE 2000-01-2867]. To correctly simulate the HCCI engine operation, we implement a probability density function (PDF) based stochastic reactor model (including detailed chemical kinetics and accounting for inhomogeneities in composition and temperature) coupled with GT-POWER, a 1-D fluid dynamics based engine cycle simulator. Such a coupling proves to be ideal for the understanding of the combustion phenomenon as well as the gas dynamics processes intrinsic to the engine cycle.
Technical Paper

Advanced Predictive Diesel Combustion Simulation Using Turbulence Model and Stochastic Reactor Model

Today numerical models are a major part of the diesel engine development. They are applied during several stages of the development process to perform extensive parameter studies and to investigate flow and combustion phenomena in detail. The models are divided by complexity and computational costs since one has to decide what the best choice for the task is. 0D models are suitable for problems with large parameter spaces and multiple operating points, e.g. engine map simulation and parameter sweeps. Therefore, it is necessary to incorporate physical models to improve the predictive capability of these models. This work focuses on turbulence and mixing modeling within a 0D direct injection stochastic reactor model. The model is based on a probability density function approach and incorporates submodels for direct fuel injection, vaporization, heat transfer, turbulent mixing and detailed chemistry.
Technical Paper

A Three-Zone Model for Investigation of Gas Behavior in the Combustion Chamber of SI Engines in Relation to Knock

A zero-dimensional, three-zone model is developed in order to study the gas thermodynamic characteristics and its relation to knock in SI engines. The first zone is the zone behind the flame front, i.e. the burned gas products. The second zone is the unburned gas ahead of the flame front. The end gas adjacent to the wall, in the boundary layer, is not included in the second zone but it is treated as a separate zone, i.e. the third zone. A detailed analysis of the gas thermodynamic state, including heat transfer analysis between the zones and the walls and mass transfer analysis between the zones combined with a detailed chemical kinetic mechanism in each zone have been performed. The effects of piston movement, flame propagation and transient behavior of the thermal boundary layer are modeled. A sudden rise of pressure and temperature and associated heat release in the end gas are calculated if autoignition occurs.
Technical Paper

Simulation of a Three-Way Catalyst Using Transient Single and Multi-Channel Models

The three-way catalytic converter (TWC) is the most common catalyst for gasoline engine exhaust gas after treatment. The reduction of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and unburned hydrocarbons (HC) is achieved via oxidation of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons, and reduction of nitrogen oxides. These conversion effects were simulated in previous works using single-channel approaches and detailed kinetic models. In addition to the single-channel model multiple representative catalyst channels are used in this work to take heat transfer between the channels into account. Furthermore, inlet temperature distribution is considered. Each channel is split into a user given number of cells and each cell is treated like a perfectly stirred reactor (PSR). The simulation is validated against an experimental four-stroke engine setup with emission outputs fed into a TWC.
Technical Paper

Multi-Objective Optimization of Fuel Consumption and NOx Emissions with Reliability Analysis Using a Stochastic Reactor Model

The introduction of a physics-based zero-dimensional stochastic reactor model combined with tabulated chemistry enables the simulation-supported development of future compression-ignited engines. The stochastic reactor model mimics mixture and temperature inhomogeneities induced by turbulence, direct injection and heat transfer. Thus, it is possible to improve the prediction of NOx emissions compared to common mean-value models. To reduce the number of designs to be evaluated during the simulation-based multi-objective optimization, genetic algorithms are proven to be an effective tool. Based on an initial set of designs, the algorithm aims to evolve the designs to find the best parameters for the given constraints and objectives. The extension by response surface models improves the prediction of the best possible Pareto Front, while the time of optimization is kept low.