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1D Simulation and Experimental Analysis of a Turbocharger Compressor for Automotive Engines under Unsteady Flow Conditions

Zero-dimensional, one-dimensional, and quasi-dimensional models for simulation of SI and CI engines with respect to: engine breathing and boosting; SI combustion and emissions; CI combustion and emissions; fundamentals of engine thermodynamics; thermal management; mechanical and lubrication systems; system level models for controls; system level models for vehicle fuel economy and emissions predictions. Presenter Fabio Bozza, Universita di Napoli
Technical Paper

A Two-Stroke Engine Model Based on Advanced Simulation of Fundamental Processes

Research activities concerning the development and set up of a theoretical model for the analysis of spark-ignition two-stroke engines are reported. The engine system is identified by the definition of both zero-dimensional time-varying control volumes (i.e., cylinders or crankcases) and one-dimensional devices (i.e., intake or exhaust manifolds, transfer ducts, etc.). Fundamental processes such as combustion, fluid dynamics and scavenging, are modelled using up-to-date approaches. In particular, a fractal sub-model is adopted for the evaluation of flame area and burning rate; a high resolution upwind TVD scheme is utilized for the prediction of wave propagation within ducts. The overall prediction level is estimated through the comparison with experimental data measured on a small-size engine under both motored and firing conditions.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation and Numerical Modelling of an Advanced Turbocharged D.I. Diesel Engine

Following their recent experiences in the fields of experimental analysis and numerical simulation of turbocharged engines, the authors present, in this paper, an integrated procedure for studying the behaviour of a light-duty turbocharged D.I. diesel engine, equipped with a variable geometry turbine, an intercooler and an EGR system for NOx control. Experimental activities consist of a complete investigation of the engine operating conditions under different rotational speeds and fuel deliveries. Experimental data provide the basis for numerical investigations. Numerical simulation is carried out through different level of approach, characterised by an increasing level of complexity. A simplified approach of the filling and emptying type is employed for a preliminary determination of matching conditions among the components. Next, a 1-D flow model allows a more correct evaluation of wave propagation phenomena through external ducts.
Technical Paper

Second Law Analysis of Turbocharged Engine Operation

In this paper the turbocharged diesel engine operation is analyzed by means of a second law based method. The instantaneous release and storage of availability inside the several components (cylinders, manifolds, compressor and turbine) are evaluated by following a theoretical-experimental methodology that has been recently proposed by the authors. Examples of availability balances are compared for different values of some parameters which influence the combustion and the exhaust process, or for several arrangements of the engine and turbomachine system. The availability analysis of the engine transient development will show the amounts of mechanical energy employed for both in-cylinder storage and turbocharger acceleration and of those available for conversion into external output. These amounts will be compared with the fuel availability and with those destroyed during the several processes (i.e. combustion, gas exchange, turbocharger operation).
Technical Paper

Theoretical and Experimental Investigation of the Matching Between an I.C.E. and a Turbocharger

The authors present a method for turbocharged I.C.E. analysis, based upon an unsteady non-dimensional flow-model, whose accuracy level has been improved by means of experimental investigations. Experimental activities allowed a higher prediction level to be reached for both engine cycles and turbocharger operation. The results are also compared with those of an experimental methodology recently proposed by the authors, based upon one-dimensional unsteady flow models and fast pressure data acquisition. The method is mainly utilized, in this paper, as to compare the effects of two different turbochargers on engine performance and turbomachinery operating conditions. The engine and turbocharger matching is considered under both steady and transient conditions.
Technical Paper

Experimental Correlations for Heat Release and Mechanical Losses in Turbocharged Diesel Engines

The authors present a methodology to establish correlation, derived from experimental activities, for both heat release law and mechanical loss components in a turbocharged four-cylinder diesel engine. The introduction of the resulting parameters in a fully theoretical model leads to an improvement in its predictive level, as demonstrated by the result presented in terms of both thermodynamic and mechanical engine features. The most interesting characteristic of the model is represented by the comprehensive description of the engine dynamics under transient conditions.
Technical Paper

Refinement of a 0D Turbulence Model to Predict Tumble and Turbulent Intensity in SI Engines. Part II: Model Concept, Validation and Discussion

As known, reliable information about underlying turbulence intensity is a mandatory pre-requisite to predict the burning rate in quasi-dimensional combustion models. Based on 3D results reported in the companion part I paper, a quasi-dimensional turbulence model, embedded under the form of “user routine” in the GT-Power™ software, is here presented in detail. A deep discussion on the model concept is reported, compared to the alternative approaches available in the current literature. The model has the potential to estimate the impact of some geometrical parameters, such as the intake runner orientation, the compression ratio, or the bore-to-stroke ratio, thus opening the possibility to relate the burning rate to the engine architecture. Preliminarily, a well-assessed approach, embedded in GT-Power commercial software v.2016, is utilized to reproduce turbulence characteristics of a VVA engine.
Technical Paper

Refinement of a 0D Turbulence Model to Predict Tumble and Turbulent Intensity in SI Engines. Part I: 3D Analyses

Recently, a growing interest in the development of more accurate phenomenological turbulence models is observed, since this is a key pre-requisite to properly describe the burn rate in quasi-dimensional combustion models. The latter are increasingly utilized to predict engine performance in very different operating conditions, also including unconventional valve control strategies, such as EIVC or LIVC. Therefore, a reliable phenomenological turbulence model should be able to physically relate the actuated valve strategy to turbulence level during the engine cycle, with particular care in the angular phase when the combustion takes place.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Analyses for the Characterization of the Cyclic Dispersion and Knock Occurrence in a Small-Size SI Engine

In this paper, an experimental and numerical analysis of combustion process and knock occurrence in a small displacement spark-ignition engine is presented. A wide experimental campaign is preliminarily carried out in order to fully characterize the engine behavior in different operating conditions. In particular, the acquisition of a large number of consecutive pressure cycle is realized to analyze the Cyclic Variability (CV) effects in terms of Indicated Mean Effective Pressure (IMEP) Coefficient of Variation (CoV). The spark advance is also changed up to incipient knocking conditions, basing on a proper definition of a knock index. The latter is estimated through the decomposition and the FFT analysis of the instantaneous pressure cycles. Contemporary, a quasi-dimensional combustion and knock model, included within a whole engine one-dimensional (1D) modeling framework, are developed. Combustion and knock models are extended to include the CV effects, too.
Technical Paper

Steady and Unsteady Modeling of Turbocharger Compressors for Automotive Engines

Turbocharging technique will play a fundamental role in the near future not only to improve automotive engine performance, but also to reduce fuel consumption and exhaust emissions both in Spark Ignition and Compression Ignition engines. To this end, one-dimensional (1D) modelling is usually employed to compute the engine-turbocharger matching, to select the boost level in different operating conditions and to estimate low end torque level and transient response. However, 1D modeling of a turbocharged engine requires the availability of the turbine and compressor characteristic maps. This leads to some typical drawbacks: performance maps of the turbocharger device are usually limited to a reduced number of rotational speeds, pressure ratios and mass flow rates.
Technical Paper

Noise Prediction of a Multi-Cylinder Engine Prototype Using Multi-Body Dynamic Simulation

In the paper a coupled Multi-Body and FEM-BEM methodology used to predict the noise radiated by a turbocharged 4-cylinder diesel engine prototype is described. A Multi-Body Dynamic Simulation (MBDS) of the engine has been carried out, simulating an engine speed sweep from 1500 to 4000 rpm, in order to determine the excitation force of the powertrain, and in particular to estimate the forces acting on the cylinder block. Thanks to the Multi-Body approach, the dynamics of the engine powertrain have been described taking into account both the effects of the burnt gas pressure during the combustion process and the inertia forces of the moving parts. Moreover to assess the real engine operating behaviour, both the crank and the block have been considered as flexible bodies.
Technical Paper

Reducing Fuel Consumption, Noxious Emissions and Radiated Noise by Selection of the Optimal Control Strategy of a Diesel Engine

Despite the recent efforts devoted to develop alternative technologies, it is likely that the internal combustion engine will remain the dominant propulsion system for the next 30 years and beyond. Also as a consequence of more and more stringent emissions regulations established in the main industrialized countries, strongly demanded are methods and technologies able to enhance the internal combustion engines performance in terms of both efficiency and environmental impact. Present work focuses on the development of a numerical method for the optimization of the control strategy of a diesel engine equipped with a high pressure injection system, a variable geometry turbocharger and an EGR circuit. A preliminary experimental analysis is presented to characterize the considered six-cylinder engine under various speeds, loads and EGR ratios.
Technical Paper

Knock Detection in a Turbocharged S.I. Engine Based on ARMA Technique and Chemical Kinetics

During the last years, a number of techniques aimed at the experimental identification of the knocking onset in Spark-Ignition (SI) Internal Combustion Engines have been proposed. Besides the traditional procedures based on the processing of in-cylinder pressure data in the frequency domain, in the present paper two innovative methods are developed and compared. The first one is based on the use of statistical analysis by applying an Auto Regressive Moving Average (ARMA) technique, coupled to a prediction algorithm. It is shown that such parametric model, applied to the instantaneous in-cylinder pressure measurements, is highly sensitive to knock occurrence and is able to identify soft or heavy knock presence in different engine operating conditions. An alternative, more expensive procedure is developed and compared to the previous one.
Technical Paper

A Knock Model for 1D Simulations Accounting for Cyclic Dispersion Phenomena

Control of knock phenomenon is becoming more and more important in modern SI engine, due to the tendency to develop high boosted turbocharged engines (downsizing). To this aim, improved modeling and experimental techniques are required to precisely define the maximum allowable spark advance. On the experimental side, the knock limit is identified based on some indices derived by the analysis of the in-cylinder pressure traces or of the cylinder block vibrations. The threshold levels of the knock indices are usually defined following an heuristic approach. On the modeling side, in the 1D codes, the knock is usually described by simple correlation of the auto-ignition time of the unburned gas zone within the cylinders. In addition, the latter methodology commonly refers to ensemble-averaged pressure cycles and, for this reason, does not take into account the cycle-by-cycle variations.
Technical Paper

The Use of Vibrational Signals for On-Board Knock Diagnostics Supported by In-Cylinder Pressure Analyses

In the present work, an Auto Regressive Moving Average (ARMA) model and a Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) are applied on vibrational signals, acquired by an accelerometer placed on the cylinder block of a Spark Ignition (SI) engine, for knock detection purposes. To the aim of tuning such procedures, the same analysis has been carried out by using the traditional MAPO (Maximum Amplitude of Pressure Oscillations) index and an Inverse Kinetic Model (IKM), both applied on the in-cylinder pressure signals. Vibrational and in-cylinder pressure signals have been collected on a four cylinder, four stroke engine, for different engine speeds, load conditions and spark advances. The results of the two vibrational based methods are compared and in depth discussed to the aim of highlighting the pros and cons of each methodology.
Technical Paper

Improving Acoustic Performance of an Air Filter Box. TL Analysis and Device Optimization

The characteristics of the intake system affect both engine power output and gas-dynamic noise emissions. The latter is particularly true in downsized VVA engines, where a less effective attenuation of the pressure waves is realized, due to the intake line de-throttling at part-load. For this engine architecture, a refined air-box design is hence requested. In this work, the Transmission Loss (TL) of the intake air-box of a commercial VVA engine is numerically computed through a 3D FEM approach. Results are compared with experimental data, showing a very good correlation. The validated model is then coupled to an external optimizer (ModeFRONTIERTM) to increase the TL parameter in a prefixed frequency range. The improvement of the acoustic attenuation is attained through a shape deformation of the inner structure of the base device, taking into account constraints related to the device installation inside the engine bay.
Technical Paper

A Non-Linear Regression Technique to Estimate from Vibrational Engine Data the Instantaneous In-Cylinder Pressure Peak and Related Angular Position

In this paper, a downsized twin-cylinder turbocharged spark-ignition engine is experimentally investigated at test-bench in order to verify the potential to estimate the peak pressure value and the related crank angle position, based on vibrational data acquired by an accelerometer sensor. Purpose of the activity is to provide the ECU of additional information to establish a closed-loop control of the spark timing, on a cycle-by-cycle basis. In this way, an optimal combustion phasing can be more properly accomplished in each engine operating condition. Engine behavior is firstly characterized in terms of average thermodynamic and performance parameters and cycle-by-cycle variations (CCVs) at high-load operation. In particular, both a spark advance and an A/F ratio sweep are actuated. In-cylinder pressure data are acquired by pressure sensors flush-mounted within the combustion chamber of both cylinders.
Technical Paper

A Comparison Between Two Phenomenological Combustion Models Applied to Different SI Engines

Nowadays, the development of a new engine is becoming more and more complex due to conflicting factors regarding technical, environmental and economic issues. The experimental activity has to comply with the above complexities, resulting in increasing cost and duration of engine development. For this reason, the simulation is becoming even more prominent, thanks to its lower financial burden, together with the need of an improved predictive capability. Among the other numerical approaches, the 1D models represent a proper compromise between reliability and computational effort, especially if the engine behavior has to be investigated over a number of operating conditions. The combustion model has a key role in this contest and the research of consistent approaches is still on going. In this paper, two well-assessed combustion models for Spark Ignition (SI) engines are described and compared: the eddy burn-up theory and the fractal approach.
Technical Paper

Numerical Study of the Potential of a Variable Compression Ratio Concept Applied to a Downsized Turbocharged VVA Spark Ignition Engine

Nowadays different technical solutions have been proposed to improve the performance of internal combustion engines, especially in terms of Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC). Its reduction of course contributes to comply with the CO2 emissions legislation for vehicle homologation. Concerning the spark ignition engines, the downsizing coupled to turbocharging demonstrated a proper effectiveness to improve the BSFC at part load. On the other hand, at high load, the above solution highly penalizes the fuel consumption mainly because of knock onset, that obliges to degrade the combustion phasing and/or enrich the air/fuel mixture. A promising technique to cope with the above drawbacks consists in the Variable Compression Ratio (VCR) concept. An optimal Compression Ratio (CR) selection, in fact, allows for further improvements of the thermodynamic efficiency at part load, while at high load, it permits to mitigate knock propensity, resulting in more optimized combustions.
Technical Paper

Techniques for CO2 Emission Reduction over a WLTC. A Numerical Comparison of Increased Compression Ratio, Cooled EGR and Water Injection

In this work, various techniques are numerically applied to a base engine - vehicle system to estimate their potential CO2 emission reduction. The reference thermal unit is a downsized turbocharged spark-ignition Variable Valve Actuation (VVA) engine, with a Compression Ratio (CR) of 10. In order to improve its fuel consumption, preserving the original full-load torque, various technologies are considered, including an increased CR, an external low-pressure cooled EGR, and a ported Water Injection (WI). The analyses are carried out by a 1D commercial software (GT-Power™), enhanced by refined user-models for the description of in-cylinder processes, namely turbulence, combustion, heat transfer and knock. The latter were validated with reference to the base engine architecture in previous activities. To minimize the Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC) all over the engine operating plane, the control parameters of the base and modified engines are calibrated based on PID controllers.