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1D Simulation and Experimental Analysis of a Turbocharger Compressor for Automotive Engines under Unsteady Flow Conditions

Zero-dimensional, one-dimensional, and quasi-dimensional models for simulation of SI and CI engines with respect to: engine breathing and boosting; SI combustion and emissions; CI combustion and emissions; fundamentals of engine thermodynamics; thermal management; mechanical and lubrication systems; system level models for controls; system level models for vehicle fuel economy and emissions predictions. Presenter Fabio Bozza, Universita di Napoli
Technical Paper

Experimental Correlations for Heat Release and Mechanical Losses in Turbocharged Diesel Engines

The authors present a methodology to establish correlation, derived from experimental activities, for both heat release law and mechanical loss components in a turbocharged four-cylinder diesel engine. The introduction of the resulting parameters in a fully theoretical model leads to an improvement in its predictive level, as demonstrated by the result presented in terms of both thermodynamic and mechanical engine features. The most interesting characteristic of the model is represented by the comprehensive description of the engine dynamics under transient conditions.
Technical Paper

Performance and Emissions of an Advanced Multi-Cylinder SI Engine Operating in Ultra-Lean Conditions

In this work the performance and noxious emissions of a prototype Spark Ignition (SI) engine, working in ultra-lean conditions, are investigated. It is a four-cylinder engine, having a very high compression ratio, and an active pre-chamber. The required amount of air is provided by a low-pressure variable geometry turbocharger, coupled to a high-pressure E-compressor. The engine is equipped with a variable valve timing device on the intake camshaft. The goal of this activity is to support the development and the calibration of the described engine, and to exploit the full potential of the ultra-lean concept. To this aim, a combustion model for a pre-chamber engine, set up and validated in a previous paper for a similar single-cylinder unit, is utilized. It is coupled to additional in-house developed sub-models, employed for the prediction of the in-cylinder turbulence, heat transfer, knock and pollutant emissions.
Journal Article

Combined Effects of Valve Strategies, Compression Ratio, Water Injection, and Cooled EGR on the Fuel Consumption of a Small Turbocharged VVA Spark-Ignition Engine

In this work, various techniques are numerically investigated to assess and quantify their relative effectiveness in reducing the Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC) of a downsized turbocharged spark-ignition Variable Valve Actuation (VVA) engine. The analyzed solutions include the Variable Compression Ratio (VCR), the port Water Injection (WI), and the external cooled Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR). The numerical analysis is developed in a 1D modeling framework. The engine is schematized in GT-Power™ environment, employing refined sub-models of the in-cylinder processes, such as the turbulence, combustion, knock, and heat transfer. The combustion and knock models have been extensively validated in previous papers, at different speed/load points and intake valve strategies, including operations with a relevant internal EGR rate and with liquid WI.
Technical Paper

Techniques for CO2 Emission Reduction over a WLTC. A Numerical Comparison of Increased Compression Ratio, Cooled EGR and Water Injection

In this work, various techniques are numerically applied to a base engine - vehicle system to estimate their potential CO2 emission reduction. The reference thermal unit is a downsized turbocharged spark-ignition Variable Valve Actuation (VVA) engine, with a Compression Ratio (CR) of 10. In order to improve its fuel consumption, preserving the original full-load torque, various technologies are considered, including an increased CR, an external low-pressure cooled EGR, and a ported Water Injection (WI). The analyses are carried out by a 1D commercial software (GT-Power™), enhanced by refined user-models for the description of in-cylinder processes, namely turbulence, combustion, heat transfer and knock. The latter were validated with reference to the base engine architecture in previous activities. To minimize the Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC) all over the engine operating plane, the control parameters of the base and modified engines are calibrated based on PID controllers.
Technical Paper

Toward Predictive Combustion Modeling of CNG SI Engines in 1D Simulation Tools

In the recent years, the interest in heavy-duty engines fueled with Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) is increasing due to the necessity to comply with the stringent CO2 limitation imposed by national and international regulations. Indeed, the reduced number of carbon atoms of the NG molecule allows to reduce the CO2 emissions compared to a conventional fuel. The possibility to produce synthetic methane from renewable energy sources, or bio-methane from agricultural biomass and/or animal waste, contributes to support the switch from conventional fuel to CNG. To drive the engine development and reduce the time-to-market, the employment of numerical analysis is mandatory. This requires a continuous improvement of the simulation models toward real predictive analyses able to reduce the experimental R&D efforts. In this framework, 1D numerical codes are fundamental tools for system design, energy management optimization, and so on.