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Technical Paper

Energy Management Strategy for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

This paper focus on the analysis of energy management for hybrid electric vehicles. The development of higher efficiency vehicles depends on the analysis of vehicle characteristics and driving conditions. Sizing the energy capacity of the storage system and defining the type of components, batteries or other kinds of electric components has a direct influence over the performance, consumption and autonomy of the vehicle. The forces involved in a vehicle movement such as aerodynamic drag, rolling resistance, grading resistance, are fully dependent on the conditions of the route; most situations should be represented on the driving pattern cycle, used for emissions and consumption tests, which will be presented and discussed. Modeling vehicle dynamic to analyze power and energy requirements of the vehicle during different test cycles provides an indication of the influence of hybrid technology in performance and fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

Nonlinear Dynamic Model of a Commercial Vehicle and the Variables that Can Affect the Fuel Consumption

The search for better energy efficiency is leading the developments in automotive industry, looking for opportunities to reduce losses, optimizing the design and getting better efficiency of every component. This paper will present a non-linear dynamic study of interaction between commercial vehicle and the environment, considering all the influence of their dynamic characteristics in the fuel consumption. The first step is to analyze all variables that influence the dynamic behavior and then construct a mathematical model based on energy and based on forces (Newton). The interaction between the vehicle and its environment and the response of it will be considered as influent aspects and should be included into vehicle dynamic modeling.
Technical Paper

Fuel Consumption Reduction Based on the Optimization of the Vehicle Gear Shifting Strategy Considering New Gear Ratios

The gear shifting strategies strongly influence the vehicle fuel consumption because they change the powertrain inertia and the engine operation point. The literature normally presents gear shifting strategies based on the engine power and torque to improve the vehicle acceleration performance. Strategies based on fuel economy are difficult to determine due to a large number of factors that influence the engine behavior such as the available transmission ratios, required acceleration and vehicle speed. In this paper it was evaluated the influence of the addition of more gear ratios in the vehicle gearbox, which initially contains five available gear ratios. For each proposed gearbox configuration, the gear shifting strategy was optimized through an algorithm developed to improve the engine fuel consumption in the Brazilian standard urban driving cycle NBR6601.
Technical Paper

Computational and Experimental Analysis of Fuel Consumption of a Hybridized Vehicle

Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) currently represent an alternative to reducing fossil fuel consumption used by internal combustion engines. This paper analyses, in a platform of computational simulation and also in experimental condition, the vehicle fuel consumption, before and after hybridization. It checks the similarity of behaviors and/or the investigation of possible differences between the developed mathematical model and experiments performed. Computer simulations help, through mathematical models, a better understanding of physical phenomena related to engineering problems. A well elaborated computer model has a high fidelity degree with the real systems, becoming a powerful analysis tool. The experiments besides allowing a proof of results, they contribute to a refinement of the simulated models. The hybrid technology under study is characterized by the coupling of two electric motors directly to the rear vehicle wheels.
Technical Paper

Parallel Hybrid Vehicle Power Management Co-Simulation

The hybrid electric vehicle (HEVs) is an alternative to reduce the high dependence on petroleum products, because maintains the characteristics attributed to conventional vehicles such as performance, safety and trustworthiness and reduced the fuel consumption. Some modifications are necessary in the vehicle longitudinal dynamics equationing, to provide a specific power management control system, because of the electrical power source addition that complements the conventional engine and powertrain system. In this paper is used the HEV parallel configuration, where both drive systems are directly connected to the vehicle wheels, maintaining the engine/powertrain in the front wheels and electric motors directly coupled to the rear vehicle wheels.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Available Energy for Regenerative Breaking at the Brazilian Driving Cycle

The purpose of this paper is evaluating the amount of kinetic energy available to be regenerated by a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) undergoing the Brazilian standardized driving cycle. Improvements on energy efficiency of the cars has become an urgent target of the Brazilian industry since Brazil launched a new automotive regulation imposing the reduction of 15.5% on the fuel consumption of the vehicles to be sold in this country in 2017 comparing to 2011. The HEVs are a possible solution for this situation. They are widely known by the high efficiency, mainly the ones capable to make the regenerative breaking, rescuing an already paid energy. Before the launch of HEVs in Brazil, the feasibility of these vehicles has to be accurately studied and one aspect to be evaluated is how much energy is possible to be rescued in the Brazilian standardized driving cycle.
Technical Paper

Economic and Energy Analysis of Hybridized Vehicle by Means of Experimental Mapping

The development of hybrid vehicles has reached in recent years a high technical and commercial importance. In general, varied vehicular settings enable a motorization with several alternatives and conventional energies combined in order to increase the performance while reducing consumption and environmental impact. In the context of hybridization, particular attention has been given to vehicles that consider a secondary driving source of electric nature, mainly in countries where its cost is relatively low when compared with the cost of fossil fuels such as gasoline. This paper aims to achieve an economic and energy analysis of a hybridized vehicle. The last one has a conventional traction front-wheel driven by an internal combustion engine (ICE) and an electric traction rear-wheel propelled by electric motors (EMs) in-wheel.
Technical Paper

Experimental Evaluation of Rotational Inertia and Tire Rolling Resistance for a Twin Roller Chassis Dynamometer

Chassis dynamometers are important equipment to perform vehicular experiments in the automotive industry. Usually, these equipments are used according to standard procedures for emissions, fuel consumption, and performance analyses. In this paper, an alternative procedure was developed to experimentally determine the dynamometer inertia and losses related to bearings and transmission systems. Furthermore, a study on the tires rolling resistance, considering a double tire-roller contact, was carried out. The experiments were performed in a 4x2 chassis dynamometer with four rollers, equipped with an eddy current brake (coupled to a transmission reducer of 2.5 instrumented with a 3000 Nm torque flange) and with a 30 CV AC electric motor (coupled to a planetary transmission with reduction of 4.43 and instrumented with a 500 Nm torque flange). The dynamometer was also instrumented with an encoder system for speed measurement.
Technical Paper

Modal Analysis of Valve train Test Rig Support Structure

Improvement of fuel economy is one of the most important development targets of modern passenger car engines. Modern solutions such as Direct Injection, Variable Valve Trains, or Cylinder Deactivation help to obtain this requirement. Each one of these techniques optimize the thermodynamic efficiency of the engine. However, the mechanical structure of combustion engines shows many areas of possible optimization regarding the mechanical efficiency. Engine friction affects the overall fuel consumption, mainly under low speed conditions combined with part load. Low speed/part load conditions are relevant for the real life fuel consumption of an engine, as well as friction improvements have significant effects on the fuel economy. The valve train drive produces the dominant friction portion under these conditions. Hence the friction optimization of this engine subsystem is one of the key issues regarding mechanical efficiency.