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Technical Paper

Analytical and Empirical Methods for Optimization of Cylinder Liner Bore Distortion

Beside the traditional prediction of stresses and verification by mechanical testing the optimization of cylinder liner bore distortion is one of today's most important topics in crankcase structure development. Low bore distortion opens up potentials for optimizing the piston group. As the piston rings achieve better sealing characteristics in a low deformation cylinder liner, oil consumption and blow-by are reduced. For unchanged oil consumption and blow-by demands, engine friction and subsequently, fuel consumption could be reduced by decreasing the pre-tension of the piston rings. From the acoustical point of view an optimization of piston-slap noise is often based on an optimized bore distortion behavior. Apart from basics to the behavior of liner bore distortion the paper presents advanced analytical and empirical methods for detailed prediction, verification and optimization of bore distortion taking into account the effective engine operation conditions.
Technical Paper

Development of Modern Engine Lubrication Systems

Modern passenger car engines are designed to operate at increasingly higher rated engine speeds with more internal parts (multi-valve engines) requiring lubrication. The paper presents results of research and development activities to reduce the actual feed rate of the oil consumers to their real requirements depending on the most significant influence parameters. Based on these results an optimization strategy is presented which combines CAE tools with data from experimental work. In the conclusion of the paper recommendations are summarized to show the optimization potential of actual lubrication and ventilation systems concerning design. power input respectively oil consumption.
Technical Paper

Cooling System Development and Optimization with the Computer Code COOL

Because of increasing stresses in combustion engines and critical comfort requirements of engine warm-up behavior, FEV has placed a special emphasis on solving cooling system problems. In addition to 3D-CFD calculations and special FEV measurement techniques - such as fiber optical cavitation detection, instationary heat balance measurements during warm-up, etc. - FEV has developed a 1D computer code, known as ‘COOL’, to optimize cooling systems already during the engine design phase or to analyse and eliminate weaknesses in the coolant circuit of existing engines. Beside the algorithm and structure of COOL the paper mainly presents the analysis capabilities of the code. In this connection the emphasis is placed on examples to the current OEMs problem: transient warm-up of DI-diesel engines. The COOL-code is so far a unique CAE tool which exclusively has been applied to projects conducted by FEV. Because of the increasing demand it is planned to commercialize the code in 1998.
Technical Paper

Weight and Friction Optimized Cranktrain Design Supported by Coupled CAE Tools

Due to the contradiction of the market demands and legal issues OEMs are forced to invest in finding concepts that assure high fuel economy, low exhaust emissions and high specific power at the same time. Since mechanical losses may amount up to 10 % of the fuel energy, a key to realise such customer/government specific demands is the improvement of the mechanical performance of the engines, which comprises mainly friction decrease and lightweight design of the engine parts. In order to achieve the mentioned objectives, it has to be checked carefully for each component whether the design potentials are utilized. Many experimental studies show that there is still room for optimization of the cranktrain parts, especially for the crankshaft. A total exploitation of the crankshaft potentials is only possible with advanced calculation approaches that ensure the component layout within design limits.
Technical Paper

Mechanical Testing - Still Necessary!

Over the last decades, the use of computers has become an integral part of the engine development process. Computer-based tools are increasingly used in the design process, and especially the layout of the various subsystems is conducted by means of simulation models. Computer-aided engineering plays a central role e.g. in the design of the combustion process as well as with regards to work performed in the area of engine mechanics, where CFD, FEM, and MBS are applied. As a parallel trend, it can be observed that various engine performance characteristics such as e.g. the specific power output and the power-to-weight ratio have undergone an enormous increase, a trend which to some extent counteracts the increase in safety against malfunction and failure. As yet, due to the constant need for further optimization, mechanical testing and verification processes have not become redundant, and it is assumed that they will remain indispensable for the foreseeable future.