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Technical Paper

An Analytical Examination of the Effects of Exhaust Gas Recirculation on the Compression Ignition Process of Engines Fuelled with Gaseous Fuels

The action of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is examined numerically to find out whether EGR can be used to enhance the preignition reactions of a cylinder charge in a motoring, compression ignition engine fuelled with a homogeneous gaseous fuel - air mixture. The changes to the concentrations and properties of the contents of the cylinder and the associated changes in the preignition reaction rates are followed over a number of consecutive, calculated working cycles at a constant engine speed to establish whether autoignition will take place and the number of cycles required for its occurrence. It is shown that controlled EGR can enhance the autoignition processes in gas-fuelled compression ignition engines by suitably ‘seeding’ the intake charge of the current cycle with the chemical species found in the exhaust gases of the previous cycle.
Technical Paper

An Analytical Approach for the Optimization of a SI Engine Performance Including the Consideration of Knock

The present contribution describes an analytical approach for predicting the highest limit for acceptable power or efficiency for any spark ignition engine while ensuring knock free operation. A deterministic gradient based model combined with a simple genetic algorithm were used in association with a two-zone engine combustion model to predict analytically the necessary changes in specified operating parameters to produce optimum performance. Various examples involving mainly spark ignition engine operation with methane-hydrogen fuel mixtures are presented and discussed.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Pilot Fuel Quality on Dual Fuel Engine Ignition Delay

The effects of changes in the cetane number of diesel liquid pilot fuels on the ignition delay period in dual fuel engines were investigated experimentally. Different pilot fuel quantities were employed with commercially pure methane, propane and low heating value gaseous fuel mixtures of methane with nitrogen or carbon dioxide over a range of engine load. The ignition delay variation with increased gaseous fuel admission showed a strong dependance on both the quantity and the quality of the pilot fuel used. It was found that the use of high cetane number pilot liquid fuels permitted smaller pilot quantities to be used satisfactorily. Engine operation on propane and low heating value gaseous fuels improved in comparison with dual fuel engine operation employing common diesel fuels.
Technical Paper

A Predictive Model for the Combustion Process in Dual Fuel Engines

A multi-zone model has been developed for the prediction of the combustion processes in dual fuel engines and some of their performance features. The consequences of the interaction between the gaseous and the diesel fuels and the resulting modification to the combustion processes are considered. A reacting zone has been incorporated in the model to describe the partial oxidation of the gaseous fuel-air mixture while detailed kinetic schemes are employed to describe the oxidation of the gaseous fuel, right from the start of compression to the end of the expansion process. The associated formation and concentrations of exhaust emissions are correspondingly established. The model can predict the onset of knock as well as the operating features and emissions for the more demanding case of light load performance. Predicted values for methane operation show good agreement with corresponding experimental values.
Technical Paper

An Analysis of Fuel Droplets Ignition and Combustion within Homogeneous Mixtures of Fuel and Air

The paper describes an analytical approach that models the vaporization, ignition and combustion of liquid fuel droplets in a heated environment of homogeneously mixed gaseous fuel and air at constant pressure such as taking place in dual fuel engines of the compression ignition type. Results are presented typically for the ignition and combustion of n-heptane droplets initially introduced cold into a heated homogeneous surrounding of methane-air mixtures. Variations in various parameters in space and time, such as temperature, the concentrations of the two fuels, oxygen, and products of combustion, rates of energy release, etc. are presented and discussed.
Technical Paper

The Ignition Delay Period in Dual Fuel Engines

The ignition delay period in dual fuel engines is examined, while employing the gaseous fuels methane, propane, ethylene and hydrogen. It is shown that the changes due to gaseous fuel admission in the temperature and pressure levels during the delay period, the extent of energy release due to preignition reaction processes, variations in the parameters of external heat transfer to the surroundings and the contribution of residual gases are the most important factors that determine the ignition delay characteristics of dual fuel engines. The consequences of these factors on the observed values of the ignition delay were evaluated while using detailed reaction kinetics for the oxidation of the gaseous fuel and employing an experimentally based formula for the ignition of the liquid pilot.
Technical Paper

A Diagnostic Two-Zone Combustion Model for Spark-Ignition Engines Based on Pressure-Time Data

A simple diagnostic combustion model for spark-Ignition engines, based on pressure-time data, is described. It considers the charge to be made up of two zones, burnt products and unburnt reactants, each of which is undergoing a series of continuously varying yet distinctly different polytropic processes. The two zones exchange mass across the flame front, due to combustion. This simple approach which utilizes essentially no correlations or empirical formulae produces results such as the rate of burning of the reactants, the rate of change of volume of each of the two zones, as well as the mean temperature hirstories of each of the two zones throughout the combustion period.
Technical Paper

Examination of the Combustion of a Fuel Jet in a Homogeneously Premixed Lean Fuel-Air Stream

There are numerous situations in a wide range of engineering applications involving combustion devices where the combustion of a fuel jet takes place in flowing streams containing varying proportions of a fuel homogeneously premixed with the surrounding air. Such applications can be found, for example, in dual fuel engines and in some gas turbine combustors. The paper describes some of the findings of an experimental investigation, supported by some analytical modeling, of the combustion of a circular gaseous fuel jet within lean homogeneous mixtures of various gaseous fuels and air. The nature of the combustion process of the pilot fuel jet, flame spread characteristics and limits within the surrounding moving atmosphere were considered in terms of the fuels used for the jet and the surrounding atmosphere and in terms of the jet discharge and surrounding stream flow characteristics.
Technical Paper

An Examination of Cyclic Variations in a Dual Fuel Engine

The paper considers the cyclic variations in performance parameters of a dual fuel engine fuelled with methane. It is shown that such an engine does display cyclic variations that are greater than the corresponding diesel operation, yet smaller than comparable spark ignition operation. The extent of cyclic variation in peak cylinder pressure and ignition delay increases, for any power output, as the pilot diesel quantity is reduced and the extent of gas substitution is increased. The use of extremely small pilots in the unmodified engine can lead to erratic engine performance. Greater cyclic variations are associated with low load rather than high load operation. Furthermore, with an injection system which is well matched to the engine, there is only little cyclic variation associated solely with the pilot, even when its quantity is small.
Technical Paper

A Predictive Model for Knock in Spark Ignition Engines

The present contribution combines the consideration of the chemical reaction activity of the end gas and engine operating conditions to predict the onset of knock and associated performance in a spark ignition engine fuelled with methane. A two-zone predictive combustion model was developed based on an estimate of the effective duration of the combustion period and the mass burning rate for any set of operating conditions. The unburned end gas preignition chemical reaction activity is described by a detailed chemical reaction kinetic scheme for methane and air. The variation with time of the value of a formulated dimensionless knock parameter based on the value of the cumulative energy released due to preignition reaction activity of the end gas per unit volume relative to the total energy release per unit cylinder swept volume is calculated It is shown that whenever knocking is encountered, the value of builds up to a sufficiently high value that exceeds a critical value.
Technical Paper

Exhaust Emissions from Dual Fuel Engines at Light Load

Light load operation of dual fuel engines, associated with the use of very lean gaseous fuel-air mixtures produces relatively significant exhaust concentrations of unconverted methane and carbon monoxide, especially when small pilot liquid fuel injection is involved. The nature of the processes that bring about such exhaust emissions and measures for their control are discussed.
Technical Paper

Prediction of the Performance of Spark Ignition Gas Engines Including Knock

A two-zone predictive model for the performance of a spark ignited gas engine is described. In this model, an effective mass burning rate and energy release pattern based on an estimate of the combustion duration are developed. For any given engine and set of operating conditions the pressure-time and temperatures-time histories, and hence performance parameters such as indicated power output, peak pressure, optimum spark timing, etc. are predicted. Through monitoring the chemical reaction activity, while employing detailed chemical kinetics of the end gas within the unburnt zone, the incidence of autoignition and knock can also be predicted. A dimensionless knock criterion that compares the specific energy release due to end gas preignition reaction activity to the specific energy release due to combustion of the fuel is developed and used to test for the incidence of knock and its severity.
Technical Paper

A Predictive Model for Knock in Dual Fuel Engines

A model is described for the prediction of the onset of autoignition and knock in compression ignition engines of the dual fuel type. The associated variations with time of performance parameters such as the energy release rate, cylinder pressure and charge temperature, power output and species concentrations can also be obtained. This is achieved through modelling in detail the chemical reaction rates of the gaseous fuel during compression and subsequently during diesel fuel pilot ignition and combustion. A comprehensive reaction scheme involving 105 reaction steps with 31 chemical species is employed for the purpose. The results are based mainly on methane or propane as the gaseous fuel while accounting for the contribution of pilot diesel fuel injection. Calculated data showed good general agreement with the corresponding experimental values.
Technical Paper

Methane-Carbon Dioxide Mixtures as a Fuel

The presence of carbon dioxide with methane is often encountered to varying proportions in numerous natural, industrial and bio-gases. The paper discusses how such a presence modifies significantly the thermodynamic, kinetic and combustion characteristics of methane in air. Experimental results are presented showing how the performance of engines, both of the spark ignition and compression ignition dual fuel types is adversely affected by the increasing presence of carbon dioxide with the methane. The bases for these trends are discussed and some guidelines towards alleviating the adverse effects of the presence of carbon dioxide in such fuel mixtures are made.
Technical Paper

An Examination of the Ignition Delay Period in Dual Fuel Engines

The ignition delay period occurring in dual fuel engines operating on a wide range of gaseous fuels and in diesel engines with various inert diluents added to the intake charge is examined. The observed differences in the delay period between dual fuel and diesel operations are then attributed mainly to changes in the oxygen concentration of the charge, the charge effective temperature and the chemical kinetic processes.
Technical Paper

An Examination of the Combustion Processes of a Methane Fuelled Engine When Employing Plasma Jet Ignition

Examination is made of the changes that take place in the major parameters of the combustion process and engine performance when using three different designs of plasma jet igniters of the open cavity type in a methane fuelled single cylinder engine. The characteristics of the combustion process were analysed employing a two-zone diagnostic model based on cylinder pressure-time development data. The use of plasma jet igniters with methane as a fuel enhanced the rates of burning in the initial stages of combustion, especially with very lean mixtures. The lean limit of engine operation was also extended. Their use for near stoichiometric fast burning mixtures tends in comparison to contribute little towards enhancing engine performance.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Analytical Studies of the Lean Operational Limits in Methane Fuelled Spark Ignition and Compression Ignition Engines

The observed lean and rich operational limits in a spark ignition engine of the variable compression ratio type fuelled with either methane or propane are shown to be amenable to correlation in terms of a calculated mean mixture temperature at the time of passing the spark. Moreover, using a detailed chemical kinetics model for the oxidation of lean methane-air mixtures in a compression ignition engine, the autoignition of methane-air mixtures is examined. It is shown that these autoignition limits are also influenced by the mean charge temperature and the kinetic and thermal sensitizing of the charge through mixing with residual gases.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Low Ambient Temperatures on the Combustion of Natural Gas in a Single-Cylinder Spark Ignition Engine

Operating characteristics including ignition limits, cyclic variability, and exhaust emissions were studied in the combustion of natural gas in a spark ignition, single-cylinder, variable compression ratio engine, operated at intake mixture temperatures ranging between 120 and -60 F. The work confirmed in general the feasibility of using natural gas in a spark ignition engine operated under extremely cold intake temperature conditions. It was learned that both the maximum peak cylinder pressures and the mass of mixture inducted by the engine increased as the intake mixture temperature was lowered, and that the emissions of pollutants were not significantly increased. These findings are thought to be particularly relevant to the use of natural gas in spark ignition engines, either as LNG or under very cold wintry conditions.
Technical Paper

Hydrogen as a Fuel and the Feasibility of a Hydrogen-Oxygen Engine

A preliminary investigation was made into the use of hydrogen-oxygen mixtures in spark ignition engines. This appeared to be attractive in view of the serious air pollution problem. Furthermore, hydrogen has been considered by others as a possible alternative fuel to replace depleting petroleum resources. Following a literature survey regarding the combustion characteristics of hydrogen, a computer program based on a constant-volume combustion engine cycle was used to evaluate the overall performance of an engine. Another program, which considered chemical reaction kinetics, was used to predict the onset of autoignition in mixtures undergoing compression in an engine. Results of the program indicated that an attractive and safe way to use hydrogen-oxygen mixtures in an engine involved the recycling of exhaust gases. Such a system would be fed with a stoichiometric mixture, while excess hydrogen would be circulated within to control combustion in the engine.