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Technical Paper

Developments in the Use of Multi-Purpose Numerical Simulation Tools to Optimize Combustion Control Parameters for the 2nd Generation of Lean Burn Stratified GDI Engines

The first part of the paper gives an overview of the current results obtained with the first-generation of GDI-powered vehicles launched on the European market. In view of the rather limited success in fuel consumption gain the second-generation of very lean stratified layouts has begun, but this process requires the development and application of new high-level analysis tools. A possible high performance approach is the multi-purpose use of 3-D numerical simulation both in the development and the engine control strategy calibration phases. The development of a small 1.6 liter lean stratified engine project was chosen to demonstrate the dual application capability of the NCF-3D simulation tool. The paper continues with a description of the engine application frame, the basic features of the NCF-3D simulation tool and the latest enhancements made to combustion and fuel composition models within the software frame.
Technical Paper

Improvements of GDI-Injector Optimization Tools for Enhanced SI-Engine Combustion Chamber Layout

The suggestions for upcoming Euro 2000 clean air act puts an increasing legislative pressure for lower specific fuel consumption in order to reduce the emission of CO2 and thereby decrease the impact of the “green house” effect. One of the possible suggestions to meet these requirements for SI-engines is the gasoline direct injected (GDI) power unit. One of the key points of the success of a layout of a GDI system is the optimization of the fuel injector and combustion chamber charge formation parameters. A brief description of the basic GDI-system used during the study is given. Hereafter are outlined the computational and experimental optimization tools which have been used to produce, on a reasonable industrial time scale, the main indications to optimize the design of a given injector/chamber configuration. The paper discusses in detail the results produced by the latest enhancements introduced into the 3D multi-phase computational approach, NCF-3D.
Technical Paper

Optimization of the Performance of Two-Stroke Spark-Ignition Engines Using a Capacitor in the Exhaust Manifold

The performance of a small cross-scavenged two stroke spark ingition engines have been analysed by means of a displacement-mixing model for the intake gases, a two-zones combustion model, and one-dimensional numerical technique for the gas flow in the exhaust system. Numerical studies have shown that two stroke engine performance can be optimized by using a resonant chamber connected by means of a valve to the exhaust manifold. The configuration of the exhaust system C the resonant chamber's volume, the geometry of the pipe) may be determined as function of the required engine applications by the implemented code.
Technical Paper

On the Steady and Unsteady Turbulence Modeling in Ground Vehicle Aerodynamic Design and Optimization

Computational Fluid Dynamics is nowadays largely employed as an effective optimization tool in the automotive industry, especially for what concerns aerodynamic design driven by critical factors such as the engine cooling system optimization and the reduction of drag forces, both limited by continuously changing stylistic constraints. The Ahmed reference model is a generic car-type bluff body with a slant back, which is frequently used as a benchmark test case by industrial as well as academic researchers, in order to investigate the performances of different turbulence modeling approaches. In spite of its relatively simple geometry, the Ahmed model possesses many of the typical aerodynamic features of a modern passenger car - a bluff body with separated boundary layers, recirculating flows and complex three-dimensional wake structures.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Approach to Injection and Ignition Optimization of Lean GDI-Combustion Behavior

The first part of the paper gives an overview of the current development status of the GDI system layout for the middle displacement engine, typically 2 liter, using the stoichiometric or weak lean concept. Hereafter are discussed the particular requirements for the transition to a small displacement/small bore engine working in stratified lean conditions. The paper continues with a description of the application of the different steps of the optimization methodology for a 1.2 liter, small bore 4 cylinder engine from its original base line MPI version towards the lean stratified operation mode. The latest changes in the combustion model, used in the numerical simulation software applied to the combustion chamber design, are discussed and comparison made with the previous model. The redesign of the combustion chamber geometry, the proper choice of injector atomizer type and location and the use of two-stage injection and multi-spark strategies are discussed in detail.
Technical Paper

Parametric Study of Physical Requirements for Optimization of the EGR-rate and the Spray Formation for Minimum Emissions Production Over a Broad Range of Load/Speed Conditions

The present paper describes a study, which can enable a small displacement (1.3 liter) turbocharged European CR-diesel engine to tolerate an important increase in EGR-level. The analysis is performed by use of a 3D virtual numerical engine model, which isolates the main parameters that must be optimized within the perimeter of the combustion chamber. The paper gives a short introduction to the physical background for NOx and soot-formation as well as a recall of the main issues related to the simulation models used in the virtual engine simulation. The analysis is performed in a 9 points load/speed test matrix. Several EGR-rates are studied as well as the impact of a precise temperature control of the exhaust gas re-introduced in the intake manifold. The paper concludes by an analysis of the cumulated impact on the EGR-level tolerated by the engine after the introduction of the suggested optimization measures.