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Technical Paper

A Multi-Objective Optimization and Robustness Assessment Framework for Passenger Airbag Shape Design

A passenger airbag is an important part of a vehicle restraint system which provides supplemental protection to an occupant in a crash event. New Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards No. 208 requires considering multiple crash scenarios at different speeds with various sizes of occupants both belted and unbelted. The increased complexity of the new requirements makes the selection of an optimal airbag shape a new challenge. The aim of this research is to present an automated optimization framework to facilitate the airbag shape design process by integrating advanced tools and technologies, including system integration, numerical optimization, robust assessment, and occupant simulation. A real-world frontal impact application is used to demonstrate the methodology.
Technical Paper

An Optimization and Trade-Off Process for Crashworthiness with Multiple Responses

Automotive crashworthiness design requires considering multiple impact modes which are often coupled by common design variables, such as sheet metal gauges. Together with different types of disciplinary design constraints and design variables, it is difficult to achieve an optimal design that meets all the design criteria with affordable cost. The objective of this research is to employ the advanced optimization and trade-off technologies to help engineers systematically get insight into the design space and subsequently select an optimal design. A vehicle example which considers multiple impact modes including full frontal, frontal offset, side, and rear impact is presented to demonstrate the proposed optimization and trade-off procedure.
Technical Paper

An Excel Based Robust Design Tool for Vehicle Structural Optimization

To reduce the cost of prototype and physical test, CAE analysis has been widely used to evaluate the vehicle performance during product development process. Combining CAE analysis and optimization approach, vehicle design process can be implemented more efficiently with affordable cost. Reliability based design optimization (RBDO) formulation considers variations of input variables, such as component gauges and material properties. As a result, the design obtained by using RBDO is more reliable and robust compared to those by deterministic optimization. The RBDO process starts from running simulation at DOE sampling data points, generating surrogate models (response surface) and performing robust and reliability based design optimization on the surrogate models by using Monte Carlo simulation. This paper presents a RBDO framework in Excel enviroment.
Technical Paper

Reliability-Based Design Optimization of a Vehicle Exhaust System

This paper focuses on the methodology development and application of reliability-based design optimization to a vehicle exhaust system under noise, vibration and harshness constraints with uncertainties. Reliability-based design optimization provides a systematic way for considering uncertainties in product development process. As traditional reliability analysis itself is a design optimization problem that requires many function evaluations, it often requires tremendous computational resources and efficient optimization methodologies. Multiple functional response constraints and large number of design variables add further complexity to the problem. This paper investigates an integrated approach by taking advantages of variable screening, design of experiments, response surface model, and reliability-based design optimization for problems with functional responses. A typical vehicle exhaust system is used as an example to demonstrate the methodology.
Technical Paper

Structural Optimization for Crash Pulse

In vehicle safety engineering, it is important to determine the severity of occupant injury during a crash. Computer simulations are widely used to study how occupants move in a crash, what they collide during the crash and thus how they are injured. The vehicle motion is typically defined for the occupant simulation by specifying a crash pulse. Many computer models used to analyze occupant kinematics do not calculate both vehicle motion and occupant motion at the same time. This paper presents a framework of response surface methodology for the crash pulse prediction and vehicle structure design optimization. The process is composed of running simulation at DOE sampling data points, generating surrogate models (response surface models), performing sensitivity analysis and structure design optimization for time history data (e.g., crash pulse).
Technical Paper

Structural Optimization for Vehicle Pitch and Drop

The optimization method and CAE analysis have been widely used in structure design for crash safety. Combining the CAE analysis and optimization approach, vehicle structure design for crash can be implemented more efficiently. One of the recent safety desirables in structure design is to reduce vehicle pitch and drop. At frontal impact tests with unbelted occupants, the interaction between occupant's head and interior header/sun visor, which is caused by excessive vehicle pitch and drop, is not desired in vehicle crash development. In order to comply with the federal frontal crash requirements for unbelted occupant, it is necessary to manage the vehicle pitch and drop by improving structure design. In this paper, a systematic process of CAE analysis with optimization approach is applied for discovering the major structural components affecting vehicle pitch and drop.