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Technical Paper

Simulation of a 1.9 Litre Direct Injection Turbocharged Diesel Engine at Part Load

Engine cycle simulation is an essential tool in the development of modern internal combustion engines. As engines evolve to meet tougher environmental and consumer demands, so must the analysis tools that the engineer employs. This paper reviews the application of such a tool, VIRTUAL 4-STROKE [1], in the modelling of a benchmark 1.9 Litre TDI engine. In an earlier paper presented to the Society [2] the authors presented results of a validation study on the same engine under full load operation. This paper expands on that work with validation of the simulation model against measured data over a full range of part load operation.
Technical Paper

Reducing Exhaust Hydrocarbon Emissions from a Small Low Cost Two-Stroke Engine

An experimental and theoretical investigation to minimise the hydrocarbon emissions from a 25 cm3 two-stroke engine with finger transfer ports is described. Finger ports have the side of each passage closest to the cylinder axis open to the cylinder bore making it possible to produce high-pressure die castings with the simplest of dies. Cylinders utilising this type of porting are believed to have inferior scavenging characteristics compared to those using closed or cup-handle porting. The effects of cylinder scavenging characteristics and port optimisation on engine performance were examined using a computer simulation. It is concluded that there is potential for a 70% reduction in exhaust hydrocarbon emissions through scavenging efficiency improvements and port optimisation, provided the cylinder scavenging can be developed to match that of the best existing unconventional crossflow scavenged designs.
Technical Paper

Experimental Validation of 1-D Modelling Codes for a Pipe System Containing Area Discontinuities

This paper reports on the first phase of an experimental evaluation of four different methods for the mathematical modelling of unsteady gas flow in a pipe system containing an area discontinuity. The four methods under investigation are the non-homentropic method of characteristics, the two-step Lax-Wendroff method with flux corrected transport, the Harten-Lax-Leer upstream difference method and the GPB finite system method. The experimentation is conducted using the QUB SP (single-pulse) pressure wave generator consisting of a cylinder, connected via a sliding valve to a long duct. The pressure waves it creates closely mimic those to be found in i.c. engines. The initial cylinder pressure may be set to simulate either an induction or an exhaust process. Various ducts are attached to the pressure wave generator to simulate both sudden and gradual area changes. Each duct is sufficiently long as to permit pressure wave observation without superposition effects.
Technical Paper

Experimental Validation of a 1D Modelling Code for a Pipe Containing Gas of Varying Properties

This paper reports on the experimental evaluation of certain aspects of the mathematical modelling by the GPB method of pressure wave propagation through finite systems, of unsteady gas flow in engine ducting. The aspects under examination are the propagation of pressure waves through a pipe which contains gases of dissimilar properties. In this case the gases are carbon dioxide and air. The experimentation is conducted using the QUB SP (single pulse) pressure wave generator consisting of a cylinder, connected via a sliding valve to a long duct. The pressure waves it creates closely mimic those to be found in i.e. engines. The initial cylinder pressure may be set to simulate either an induction or an exhaust process, but the experiments reported here are of compression waves only. The duct attached to the pressure wave generator is a straight pipe. The cylinder and part of the pipe are filled with carbon dioxide and air.
Technical Paper

Coefficients of Discharge at the Aperatures of Engines

This paper reports on the experimental evaluation of certain aspects concerning the mathematical modelling of pressure wave propagation in engine ducting. A particular aspect is the coefficient of discharge of the various ports, valves or apertures of the ducting connected to the cylinder of an engine or to the atmosphere. The traditional method for the deduction of the coefficients of discharge employs steady flow experimentation. While the traditional experimental method may well be totally adequate, it is postulated in this paper that the traditional theoretical approach to the deduction of the discharge coefficient from the measured data leads to serious inaccuracies if incorporated within an engine simulation by computer. An accurate theoretical method for the calculation of the discharge coefficient from measured data is proposed.
Technical Paper

Experimental Evaluation of 1-D Computer Codes for the Simulation of Unsteady Gas Flow Through Engines - A First Phase

This paper reports on the first phase of an experimental evaluation of five different methods for the mathematical modelling of unsteady gas flow in engine ducting. The five methods under investigation are the homentropic method of characteristics, the non-homentropic method of characteristics, the two-step Lax-Wendroff method with flux corrected transport, the Harten-Lax-Leer upstream difference method and the Blair method of pressure wave propagation through finite spaces. A single cycle pressure wave generator consisting of a cylinder, connected via a sliding valve to a long duct, has been designed and built. The pressure waves it creates closely mimic those to be found in i.e. engines. The cylinder and the ducts of the device can be filled with any gas and at elevated temperatures. A perfect seal exists between the cylinder and the valve thus enabling mass- flow correlation. The initial cylinder pressure may be set to simulate an induction or an exhaust process.
Technical Paper

Design of Exhaust Systems for V-Twin Motorcycle Engines to Meet Silencing and Performance Criteria

This paper reports on the use of mathematical modelling by the GPB method of pressure wave propagation through finite systems, for the design of prototype exhaust systems and silencers for a Harley-Davidson motorcycle. The motorcycle engine is the classic 1340 cm3 45° V-twin power unit. The design objectives were to gain mid-range power and torque without loss of performance at either end of the speed range and to design silencers which would enhance the performance and the noise image of the machine. The Queen's University of Belfast (QUB) (3)* employed their unsteady gas flow modelling techniques to the design of the system and its silencers to complement a new camshaft design from Crane Cams. The results of the use of these computer based design techniques are reported as performance characteristics of power and torque for the new design by comparison with the stock system.
Technical Paper

Motored and Steady Flow Boundary Conditions Applied to the Prediction of Scavenging Flow in a Loop Scavenged Two-Stroke Cycle Engine

The application of in-cylinder multi-dimensional modelling to the scavenging process within the cylinder of a two-stroke cycle engine requires a prior knowledge of the flow entering that cylinder. Without this information, assumptions must be made which limit the accuracy of the theoretical simulation. This paper describes laser doppler anemometry measurements of transfer port efflux flow for a two-port loop scavenged test cylinder motored at 200 rev/min. The cylinder was externally blown to ensure scavenge flow into the cylinder over the entire transfer port open period. The test results indicate that the flow does not enter the cylinder in the port design direction, but varies as a function of port height during both port opening and closing. Comparison of motoring results with those obtained under steady flow testing of the same cylinder, shows adequate correlation, thereby justifying the use of steady flow information for dynamic simulation.
Technical Paper

Correlation of an Alternative Method for the Prediction of Engine Performance Characteristics with Measured Data

This paper presents confirmation of the accuracy of prediction of an engine simulation model. The experimental data used to compare with the output of the simulation model are from a single cylinder four-stroke cycle engine and from a single-cylinder two-stroke cycle engine; both engines are naturally aspirated and use spark- ignition. In addition, for the two-stroke cycle engine, the experimental data includes two cylinders with different scavenging characteristics which induce variations of performance characteristics of up to 20%. The fundamentals of the theoretical approach have been presented before to SAE (1)* and this paper extends that theory by providing a detailed discussion on the inclusion of measured scavenging characteristics to enable the simulation model to predict the mechanism of the in-cylinder gas exchange process.
Technical Paper

Unsteady Gas Flow Through Reed Valve Induction Systems

Previous publications from The Queen's University of Belfast have described the unsteady gas flow through a naturally aspirated two-cycle engine and the most recent of these have detailed the scavenge process, the combustion model and muffler design. It is thus now possible to predict the unsteady gas flow behaviour through and the performance and noise characteristics in this type of engine with a good degree of accuracy. This paper describes a mathematical model which has been formulated to simulate the action of the two-cycle engine fitted with a reed valve due to the unsteady gas dynamic behaviour in the inlet tract and makes comparisons with measurements. A complete simulation on the computer of a two-cycle engine fitted with a reed intake valve is thus now possible.
Technical Paper

Non-Isentropic Analysis of Varying Area Flow in Engine Ducting

In two previous papers to this Society (1, 2)* an ‘alternative’ method was presented for the prediction of the unsteady gas flow behaviour through a reciprocating internal combustion engine. The computational procedures led further to the prediction of the overall performance characteristics of the power unit, be it operating on a two- or a four-stroke cycle. Correlation with measurements was given to illustrate its effectiveness and accuracy. In the ducts of such engines there are inevitably sectional changes of area which are either gradual or sudden. A tapered pipe is typical of a gradual area change whereas a throttle or a turbocharger nozzle represents a sudden area change. In those previous papers it was indicated that a fuller explanation, of the theoretical procedures required to predict accurately the unsteady gas flow in such duct sections would be given in a later paper to this Society; this is that necessary publication.
Technical Paper

Reduction of Fuel Consumption and Emissions for a Small Capacity Two-Stroke Cycle Engine

The emissions produced from a simple carburetted crankcase scavenged two-stroke cycle engine primarily arise due to losses of fresh charge from the exhaust port during the scavenging process. These losses lead to inferior fuel consumption and a negative impact on the environment. Pressure on exhaust emissions and fuel consumption has reduced the number of applications of the two-stroke cycle engine over the years, however the attributes of simplicity, high power density and potential low manufacturing costs have ensured its continuing use for mopeds and motorcycles, small outboard engines and small utility engines. Even these last bastions of the simple two-stroke engine are being challenged by the four stroke alternative as emissions legislation becomes tighter and is newly formulated for many categories of engines. A simple solution is described which reduces short circuit and scavenge losses in a cost effective way.
Technical Paper

Application of Direct Air-Assisted Fuel Injection to a SI Cross-Scavenged Two-Stroke Engine

A 500 cc single cylinder two-stroke engine employing cross scavenging and direct air-assisted gasoline injection is described. Preliminary engine test results are presented for 3000 rpm full load and 1600 rpm part load operating conditions. The effects of fuel injection timing on full and part load brake specific fuel consumption and exhaust emissions are examined.
Technical Paper

Initial Development of a Two-Stroke Cycle Diesel Engine for Automotive Applications

A three cylinder two-stroke cycle diesel engine is proposed for automotive use. The engine is of the simple loop or cross-scavenging type with a crosshead seal and under piston scavenging pump. This paper records the initial investigations of this concept using a purpose built single cylinder engine. Results from different combustion systems are presented together with tests with the same engine when using an external air supply. Measurements from a parallel investigation using a laser doppler anemometer to measure air swirl motion within one of the chambers are also presented.
Technical Paper

Further Studies of Noise Characteristics of Internal Combustion Engine Exhaust Systems

This paper describes a theoretical and experimental investigation of the noise characteristics of some basic internal combustion engine exhaust systems. On the basis of a one-dimensional analysis of the unsteady internal flow, the treatment is extended to consider the noise radiated by the efflux of gas from the atmospheric termination of the tail pipe. Using a rotary valve exhaust simulator, experimental pressure-time histories and one-third octave noise spectrograms were obtained. These are compared with those calculated.
Technical Paper

Noise Produced by Unsteady Exhaust Efflux from an Internal Combustion Engine

From a theoretical analysis of the unsteady efflux from the open end of a simulated reciprocating internal combustion engine exhaust system a prediction of overall and one-third octave sound pressure levels in space, due to this gas flow, is produced. The predictions are compared with measured levels and show a high degree of correlation.
Technical Paper

The Pressure-Time History in the Exhaust System of a High-Speed Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engine

Measurement of pressure-time histories in the exhaust system of a naturally aspirated internal combustion engine poses some difficult instrumentation problems. This paper describes an experimental and theoretical approach in tackling this research. The exhaust system is simulated by pulses of compressed air at a frequency of up to 4000 pulses/minute, that is, a 1 cyl 4 stroke cycle engine running at 8000 rpm. The pressure-time histories are calculated by digital computer in terms of the cylinder, exhaust valve, and pipe friction characteristics and compared with the experimental pressure-transducer records at various positions in the exhaust system.
Technical Paper

Unsteady Flow Effects in Exhaust Systems of Naturally Aspirated, Crankcase Compression Two-Cycle Internal Combustion Engines

This paper attempts to illustrate some of the reflection characteristics of exhaust systems, suitable for piston ported, crankcase compression, naturally aspirated two-cycle engines. In particular, the application is even narrower, being concerned principally with those engines of the spark ignition, gasoline burning type where a high bmep is desirable. The two principal exhaust systems considered are the diffuser and the expansion chamber. Both are analyzed experimentally and theoretically and presented as measured and digitally computed pressure-time diagrams in simulated and actual engine exhaust systems. These are compared and discussed.
Technical Paper

The Development of a High Speed Dynamometer and Preliminary Results Obtained from a C.A.V.01 Turbine

Modern turbocharged diesel engines employ exhaust driven turboblowers operating at high speeds up to 100,000 rpm. The performance assessment of such units demands precise and controllable power absorption and torque measurements at these very high rotational speeds. Additionally the parameters, speed, mass flow, static and dynamic pressures and temperatures must be measured. The turbine power absorption and torque measutement present unique problems. The remaining parameters may present some difficulties but generally the problems are not so great. The design of a high speed dynamometer and the development problems encountered are described. The dynamometer has been used to establihs the performance characteristics of a C. A. V. 01 turbocharger and these are reported.
Technical Paper

Unsteady Flow in the Induction System of a Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engine

Pressure-time variations are recorded in the intake pipe and crankcase of a motored, crankcase compression, piston ported, loop scavenged two stroke cycle engine over a range of engine speeds from 2000-7000 rpm, for several intake pipe lengths and different inlet port timings. These pressure-time histories are presented together with the results of theoretical calculations, which include unsteady flow in the induction tract. Predicted delivery ratio trends are compared with measured values over the range of engine speeds and inlet tract lengths for different inlet port timings.