Determination and Mechanisms of Motor Vehicle Structural Restitution from Crash Test Data
The coefficient of restitution is an indicator of the elasticity of a collision. Restitution, or elastic rebound of a deformed surface, contributes to the change in velocity of collision partners, a common measure of injury severity in automobile collisions. Because of the complex nature of collisions between motor vehicles, the characterization of the expected magnitude of the coefficient in such collisions lacks detail and mechanisms influencing its value are not well understood. Using crash test data from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), this study investigates the expected magnitude of the coefficient of restitution and mechanisms influencing restitution in automobile collisions. Both vehicle-to-barrier and vehicle-to-vehicle tests are considered for all types of collisions. The influence of a variety of collision and vehicle parameters on restitution is also explored.