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Journal Article

Setting Up a Measuring Device to Determine the Friction of the Piston Assembly

This SAE Technical Paper gives a summary of the essential findings in the development and operation of a test engine dedicated to the measuring of the friction between the piston group and the liner. Firstly the fundamental demands on the high-precision and close to real engine operation friction measuring are laid out. Subsequently the basic engine, the measuring system based on the floating liner method including a gas balance device, as well as the implemented measuring technique are specified. Major influencing variables on the friction of the piston assembly and its interference variables are also summarized. Extensive information about the systematic and strategies for the test engine's operation startup are given in acknowledgement of influencing and interference variables. This strategy reduces the developmental and startup process of an engine dedicated to the measuring of piston group friction.
Technical Paper

Development of Dynamic Models for an HCCI Engine with Fully Variable Valve-Train

For the next stage of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine researches, the development of an engine controller, taking account of dynamics is required. The objective of this paper is to develop dynamic multi input and multi output HCCI engine models and a controller to deal with variable valve lift, variable valve phase, and fuel injection. First, a physical continuous model has been developed. This model mainly consists of air flow models, an ignition model, and a combustion and mechanical model of the engine. The flow models use a receiver model on volumetric elements such as an intake manifold and a valve flow model on throttling elements such as intake valves. Livengood-wu integration of Arrhenius function is used to predict ignition timing. The combustion duration is expressed as a function of ignition timings.
Technical Paper

Piston Design Optimization for a Two-Cylinder Lean-Burn Natural Gas Engine - 3D-CFD-Simulation and Test Bed Measurements

The development of today's drivetrains focusses on the reduction of vehicles' CO2-emissions. Therefore, a drivetrain for urban and commuter traffic is under development at the Institute of Internal Combustion Engines. The concept is based on a lean-burn air cooled two-cylinder natural gas engine, which is combined with a hydraulic hybrid system. On the one hand, lean-burn combustion leads to low nitrogen oxides emissions and high thermal efficiency. On the other hand, there are several challenges concerning inflammability, combustion stability and combustion duration. An approach to optimize the combustion process is the design of the piston bowl. The paper presents the engine concept at first. Afterwards, a description of design parameters for pistons of natural gas engines and a technical overview of piston bowls is given. Subsequent to the analysis of the different piston bowls, a new design approach is presented.
Journal Article

Analysis of the Mixed Friction in the Piston Assembly of a SI Engine

Presented within the framework of this SAE Technical Paper are the highly accurate results of friction experiments, performed upon a floating-liner, single-cylinder test engine with a capacity 0.5 liters and crank angle resolution during motored and fired operation. This allows for the measurement of mixed friction zones at the dead centers. These mixed friction zones can result in friction losses and lead to wear in the components in-volved. The strength of the friction forces in any given mixed friction zone is largely dependent on the operating point. This is why the influence of each of the most important operating parameters - speed (rpm), load, oil and coolant temperature - is individually analysed, before the interactions, which are depicted in the resultant engine map, are discussed.
Technical Paper

Calculation of the Piston Assembly Friction: Classification, Validation and Interpretation

This SAE Technical Paper contains detailed data which are relevant for the calculation of the friction forces of the piston assembly in internal combustion engines. Useful ways of employing calculations besides measurements are exactly classified for the optimization of the piston assembly system in order to reduce friction losses. In the first step the theoretical basics for the calculation of the tribological system are introduced. Referring to the theory, the paper goes into detail about the basic set-up and the modeling degree of the calculation program. Furthermore, measured and calculated curves of friction forces are compared for different operating points. In addition, analysis of the crank-angle resolved friction force are presented with varying engine speeds, oil temperatures and loads and a detailed interpretation of the results is given.
Technical Paper

Layout and Optimization of a Piston Ring-pack for AUDI V6 SI-engine

The use of modern simulation tools in the engine product development process is explained using the layout of a piston and its piston ring-pack of AUDI V6 SI-engine as example. Based on the requirements for piston rings in a SI-engine the possible trade-offs are explained. A base layout for a ring-pack for the specific engine is presented. Further the validity of the simulation model is rated as the simulation output is compared to actual dynamometer measurements of the blow-by map of the engine. Additionally a test setup is presented, which measures piston ring movement and the pressures between the rings and in the ring grooves. Also these measurement results are compared to the simulation. Using DOE (design of experiments) on the base layout potentials for optimization are shown and applied. To identify the positive effects in the engine pistons with piston rings are fabricated in accordance with the DOE recommendations.
Technical Paper

Turbocharging of a Two-cylinder Lean-Burn Natural Gas Engine with Uneven Firing Order

At the Institute of Internal Combustion Engines of the Technische Universitaet Muenchen a drivetrain for urban and commuter traffic is under development. The concept is based on a lean-burn air-cooled two-cylinder natural gas engine which is combined with a hydraulic hybrid system. The engine is initially mechanically charged which results in an engine speed dependent torque. Turbocharging the natural gas fuelled engine derives increased engine torque especially at low engine speeds and exploits the potential of better knock resistance of natural gas compared to gasoline fuel. The paper presents a turbocharging concept for the two-cylinder engine at first. The firing order of 180/540°CA due to the crank shaft design and the lean-burn combustion are challenging restrictions to cope with. The consequences of the uneven firing order are investigated using 1D-simulation and the matching of the exhaust gas turbocharger is shown.
Journal Article

Investigation of a Methane Scavenged Prechamber for Increased Efficiency of a Lean-Burn Natural Gas Engine for Automotive Applications

Scarce resources of fossil fuels and increasingly stringent exhaust emission legislation push towards a stronger focus to alternative fuels. Natural gas is considered a promising solution for small engines and passenger cars due to its high availability and low carbon dioxide emissions. Furthermore, natural gas indicates great potential of increased engine efficiency at lean-burn operation. However, the ignition of these lean air/fuel mixtures leads to new challenges, which can be met by fuel scavenged prechambers. At the Institute of Internal Combustion Engines of the Technische Universitaet Muenchen an air cooled natural gas engine with a single cylinder displacement volume of 0.5 L is equipped with a methane scavenged prechamber for investigations of the combustion process under real engine conditions. The main combustion chamber is supplied with a lean premixed air/fuel mixture.
Technical Paper

Cetane Number Determination by Advanced Fuel Ignition Delay Analysis in a New Constant Volume Combustion Chamber

A new constant volume combustion chamber (CVCC) apparatus is presented that calculates the cetane number (CN) of fuels from their ignition delay by means of a primary reference fuel calibration. It offers the benefits of low fuel consumption, suitability for non-lubricating substances, accurate and fast measurements and a calibration by primary reference fuels (PRF). The injection system is derived from a modern common-rail passenger car engine. The apparatus is capable of fuel injection pressures up to 1200 bar and requires only 40 ml of the test fuel. The constant volume combustion chamber can be heated up to 1000 K and pressurized up to 50 bar. Sample selection is fully automated for independent operation and low levels of operator involvement. Capillary tubes employed in the sampling system can be heated to allow the measurement of highly viscous fuels.
Technical Paper

Analysis and Modeling of Heat Transfer in the SI Engine Exhaust System During Warm-Up

In order to meet the severe emission restrictions imposed by SULEV and EURO V standards the catalytic converter must reach light-off temperature during the first 20 seconds after engine cold start. Thermal losses in the exhaust manifold are driven by the heat transfer of the pulsating and turbulent exhaust flow and affect significantly the warm-up time of the catalyst. In the present paper an investigation concerning the gas-side heat transfer in the exhaust system of a spark ignited (SI) combustion engine with retarded ignition timing and secondary air injection into the exhaust port is reported. Based on this analysis, the warm-up simulation of a one-dimensional flow simulation tool is improved for an evaluation of different exhaust system configurations.
Technical Paper

Identification of Aging Effects in Common Rail Diesel Injectors Using Geometric Classifiers and Neural Networks

Aging effects such as coking or cavitation in the nozzle of common rail (CR) diesel injectors deteriorate combustion performance. This is of particular relevance when it comes to complying with emission legislation and demonstrates the need for detecting and compensating aging effects during operation. The first objective of this paper is to analyze the influence of worn nozzles on the injection rate. Therefore, measurements of commercial solenoid common rail diesel injectors with different nozzles are carried out using an injection rate analyzer of the Bosch type. Furthermore, a fault model for typical aging effects in the nozzle of the injector is presented together with two methods to detect and identify these effects. Both methods are based on a multi-domain simulation model of the injector. The needle lift, the control piston lift and the pressure in the lower feed line are used for the fault diagnosis.
Technical Paper

Measuring and Simulating Friction between Piston Pin and Connecting Rod on a Tribometer Test Bench to Define Locally Resolved Friction Coefficients

Measuring and simulating the contact between piston pin and connecting rod (conrod) is very complex. The pin can rotate freely in the conrod as well as in the piston. Further, there is no defined oil supply with a constant pressure as it is for example in main bearings. A tribometer test bench was adapted to measure friction between pin and conrod. The system is loaded with a constant force and oil supply is realized as defined deficient lubrication. During one part of the schedule, the rotational speed is defined as ramp to measure friction coefficient over speed, in another part the speed was pivoted from positive to negative speed within less than 500 milliseconds. With this measurement method, the different friction coefficients between radial slider and pivot bearings could be quantified. The measurements were conducted for four different pin-coatings.
Technical Paper

Investigation of an Innovative Combustion Process for High-Performance Engines and Its Impact on Emissions

Over the past years, the question as to what may be the powertrain of the future has become ever more apparent. Aiming to improve upon a given technology, the internal combustion engine still offers a number of development paths in order to maintain its position in public and private mobility. In this study, an innovative combustion process is investigated with the goal to further approximate the ideal Otto cycle. Thus far, similar approaches such as Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) shared the same objective yet were unable to be operated under high load conditions. Highly increased control efforts and excessive mechanical stress on the components are but a few examples of the drawbacks associated with HCCI. The approach employed in this work is the so-called Spark Assisted Compression Ignition (SACI) in combination with a pre-chamber spark plug, enabling short combustion durations even at high dilution levels.
Journal Article

Heat Release Calculation of Internal Combustion Engines by Analyzing the Flame Radiation with Crankshaft Angle Resolution

Improving efficiency and reducing emissions are the principal challenges in developing new generations of internal combustion engines. Different strategies such as downsizing or sophisticated after-treatment of exhaust gases are pursued. Another approach aims at optimizing the parameterization of the engine. Correct adjustments of ignition timings, waste gate position and other factors have significant influence on the combustion process. A multitude of application data is generated during the development process to predefine appropriate settings for most situations. Improvements in regards to the application effort and the quality of the settings can be achieved by measuring the combustion process and optimizing the parametrization in a closed loop. However, cylinder pressure sensors that are used during the development process are too expensive for series applications.
Technical Paper

Detection of Stationary Operating States of Internal Combustion Engines

Modern methods of engine development use complex mathematical models. Adding advanced components such as variable valve trains or direct injection systems to the model increases the degrees of freedom resulting in a high number of measurements for validation. Steadily rising costs for development, time and staff make it crucial for industry to improve the quality of measurements with advanced analysis techniques. Often, such models consider the simulated system as stationary, implying that system variables no longer change with time. This paper presents an internal combustion engine measurement system utilizing algorithms for the real-time evaluation of the state of the engine or its components. Several approaches have been reviewed and tested regarding their applicability. The most straightforward algorithms compare the gradient of a sensor signal to a pre-defined threshold.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation of the Gas Flow through the Piston Ring Pack of an Internal Combustion Engine

Developing piston assemblies for internal combustion engines faces the conflicting priorities of blow-by, friction, oil consumption and wear. Solving this conflict consists in finding a minimum for all these parameters. This optimization can only be successful if all the effects involved are understood properly. In this paper only blow-by and its associated flow paths for a diesel engine in part load operating mode are part of a detailed numerical investigation. A comparison of the possibilities to do a CFD analysis of this problem should show why the way of modeling described here has been picked. Further, the determination of the complex geometry, which results in a challenging set of calculations, is described. Besides the constraints for temperature and pressure, a meshing method for the creation of a dynamic mesh that is capable of describing the movement of all three rings of the piston ring pack simultaneously is also explained.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Orifice Design Effects on a Methane Fuelled Prechamber Gas Engine for Automotive Applications

Due to its molecular structure, methane provides several advantages as fuel for internal combustion engines. To cope with nitrogen oxide emissions high levels of excess air are beneficial, which on the other hand deteriorates the flammability and combustion duration of the mixture. One approach to meet these challenges and ensure a stable combustion process are fuelled prechambers. The flow and combustion processes within these prechambers are highly influenced by the position, orientation, number and overall cross-sectional area of the orifices connecting the prechamber and the main combustion chamber. In the present study, a water-cooled single cylinder test engine with a displacement volume of 0.5 l is equipped with a methane-fuelled prechamber. To evaluate influences of the aforementioned orifices several prechambers with variations of the orientation and number of nozzles are used under different operating conditions of engine speed and load.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Simulative Approaches for the Determination of Discharge Coefficients for Inlet and Exhaust Valves and Ports in Internal Combustion Engines

In order to fulfill future exhaust emission regulations, the variety of subsystems of internal combustion engines is progressively investigated and optimized in detail. The present article mainly focuses on studies of the flow field and the resulting discharge coefficients of the intake and exhaust valves and ports. In particular, the valves and ports influence the required work for the gas exchange process, as well as the cylinder charge and consequently highly impact the engine’s performance. For the evaluation of discharge coefficients of a modern combustion engine, a stationary flow test bench has been set up at the Chair of Internal Combustion Engines (LVK) of the Technical University of Munich (TUM). The setup is connected to the test bench’s charge air system, allowing the adjustment and control of the system pressure, as well as the pressure difference across the particular gas exchange valve.
Technical Paper

Real-Time Measurement of the Piston Ring Gap Positions and Their Effect on Exhaust Engine Oil Emission

Measurement techniques for piston ring rotation, engine oil emission and blow by have been implemented on a single-cylinder petrol engine. A novel method of analysis allows continuous and fast real-time identification of the piston ring rotation of the two compression rings, while the mass-spectrometric analysis of the exhaust gas delivers the cylinder oil emission instantly and with a high temporal resolution. Only minor modifications to the piston rings were made for the insertion of the γ-emitters, the rings rotate freely around the circumference of the piston. The idea of this setup is that through online observation at the test bench, instant feedback of the measured variables is available, making it possible to purposefully select and compare measurement points. The high time resolution of the measurement methods enables the analysis of dynamic effects. In this article, the measurement setup and evaluation method is described.
Technical Paper

Using a Phenomenological Simulation Approach for the Prediction of a Dual-Fuel Pilot Injection Combustion Process

Development processes for modern combustion engines already make substantial use of more or less sophisticated simulation approaches. The enhancement of computational resources additionally allows the increasing use of simulation tools in terms of time-consuming three-dimensional CFD approaches. In particular, the preliminary estimation of feasible operating ranges and strategies requires a vast multitude of single simulations. Here, multi-zone simulation approaches incorporate the advantages of comparably short simulation durations. Nevertheless, the combination with more detailed sub-models allows these rather simple modeling approaches to offer considerable insight into relevant engine operation phenomena. In the context of combustion process development, this paper describes a phenomenological model approach for the prediction of operating point characteristics of a dual-fuel pilot injection combustion process.