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Technical Paper

Analysis of In-Cylinder Turbulent Air Motion Dependence on Engine Speed

1994-03-01
940284
In-cylinder cycle-resolved LDV measurements have been made in a diesel engine having a high-squish re-entrant combustion chamber with compression ratio of 21:1. The engine has been motored in the range of 1000 to 3000 rpm thanks to the use of self-lubricating seeding particles. Conventional ensemble-averaging and filtering techniques have been used for analyzing instantaneous velocity data obtained at two points along a diameter located in a horizontal plane at 5 mm below the engine head. The dependence of the mean motion and turbulence on engine speed has been evaluated. The effect of cut-off frequency selection on turbulence values has been also analyzed. Moreover, the Kolmogorov's -5/3 power domain has been investigated in detail by spectral analysis on the instantaneous velocity data.
Technical Paper

Integral and Micro Time Scales Estimate in a D.I. Diesel Engine

1997-05-01
971678
The present paper aims at developing a general method to estimate integral and microtime scales of turbulent in-cylinder flow field in reciprocating engines. The ensemble average technique was used to compute the integral time scale from the single point time autocorrelation function, whereas the microtime scale, representative of the most rapid changes that occur in the fluctuation, was computed as the intercept of the parabola that matches the autocorrelation function at the origin. Further, the microtime scale was also estimated by spectral analysis through the energy spectral density function of the ensemble turbulent fluctuation and the results obtained by the two methods were compared. The procedures were applied to the tangential component of the instantaneous velocity data collected, at different engine speeds (1,000, 1,500, 2,000 rpm), within a motored d.i. diesel engine equipped with a re-entrant combustion chamber, using the Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA) technique.
Technical Paper

Numerical and Experimental Analysis of Diesel Air Fuel Mixing

1993-11-01
931948
The air fuel mixing process of a small direct injection (d.i.) diesel engine, equipped with two different re-entrant combustion chambers and two nozzles having unlike spray angles, has been studied by integrated use of in-cylinder laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) measurements, engine tests, and KIVA simulations. The LDV measurements have been carried out in an engine with optical access motored at 2200 rpm. The engine tests have been performed on a similar engine at the same speed, at fixed start of combustion, and different air-fuel ratio. The KIVA-II simulations have been made using as initial conditions the parameters determined by LDV and engine tests. The re-entrant bowl with higher levels of air velocity and turbulent kinetic energy at the time of injection gives the best performance. The nozzle having a spray angle of 150° which injects the fuel into the regions at higher turbulent kinetic energy lowers the smoke emission levels.
Technical Paper

Intake Valve Flow Measurements Using PIV

1993-10-01
932700
Intake valve flow patterns have been measured quantitatively using particle image velocimetry (PIV) for a commercial 4-valve diesel cylinder head and valve system. The measurements have been made for low (600 engine RPM) and higher (1000 engine RPM) speeds, and at several planes in the valve curtain area. The measurements involve double exposure photography of laser light scattered by seed particles (≅1 μm) from a laser light sheet (≅ 0.5 mm by 50 mm) through an imaging system onto silver halide film. Subsequent processing produces the local particle displacement between the two exposures. Combined with the known time interval between exposures, the displacement information can produce velocity vectors at many locations in the field of view. The results of the experiments are shown as vector plots for each operating condition. In the plane of the illuminating laser sheet, velocity vectors representing local gas velocity are produced.
Technical Paper

PIV Investigation of High Swirl Flow on Spray Structure and its Effect on Emissions in a Diesel-Like Environment

2011-04-12
2011-01-1286
The paper presents results of an experimental investigation of the fluid dynamic processes during the air/fuel mixture formation period between an evaporating diesel spray and swirl air flow under realistic engine conditions. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) experiments have been carried out using an optically accessible prototype 2-stroke diesel engine equipped with a swirled combustion chamber. The flow within the chamber assumes a well structured swirl motion, similar to that developing in a real diesel engine, operating at high swirl ratio. The engine has been equipped with a common rail injection system and a solenoid-controlled injector, in use on automotive engines for the European market, able to manage multiple injection strategies. Two injector nozzles have been tested: a micro-sac 5-hole nozzle, 0.13 mm diameter, 150° spray angle and a 7-hole, 0.141 mm diameter, 148° spray angle.
Technical Paper

Effects of Low Temperature Premixed Combustion (LTPC) on Emissions of a Modern Diesel Engine for Passenger Cars

2010-04-12
2010-01-0333
In this paper, a Low Temperature Premixed Combustion (LTPC) was investigated employing a four cylinder D.I. common rail Diesel engine, used for passenger cars on the European market. Experiments were carried out setting the engine speed at 2500 rpm with a fuel amount of 26 mg/str to realize an operating condition close to the point of NEDC at 0.8 MPa of BMEP. The experimental approach was the management of the start of injection, injection pressure and EGR rates as a method to control NOx and soot production. The investigation was first carried out testing engine performances and emissions as set from the commercial engine map. Afterward, engine tests were carried out exploring performances, gaseous and smoke emissions at late start of combustion [10 to 17.5 cad ATDC], injection pressures from 80 to 120 MPa and EGR rates up to 50%.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation on the Combustion and Emissions of a Light Duty Diesel Engine Fuelled with Butanol-Diesel Blend

2013-04-08
2013-01-0915
In the present paper, results of an experimental investigation carried out in a modern Diesel engine running at different operating conditions and fuelled with commercial diesel and n-butanol-diesel blend are reported. The investigation was focused on the management of injection strategy and combustion timing (CA50) exploring the effect of intake oxygen concentration and boost pressure on engine out emissions. The aim of the paper was to compare, with respect to commercial diesel, the effects of a fuel blend with a lower cetane number and higher volatility on performance and engine out emissions. Engine tests, with baseline diesel and a blend made by the baseline low sulphur diesel with 20% in volume of n-butanol (B20), were performed comparing engine out gaseous, smoke emissions and combustion efficiency. The investigation was performed on a turbocharged, water cooled, DI diesel engine, equipped with a common rail injection system.
Technical Paper

Optical Investigation of Post-injection Strategy Impact on the Fuel Vapor within the Exhaust Line of a Light Duty Diesel Engine Supplied with Biodiesel Blends

2013-04-08
2013-01-1127
Multi-wavelength ultraviolet-visible extinction spectroscopy was applied to follow the evolution of fuel vapor injected by post-injection along the exhaust line of a common-rail turbocharged direct-injection diesel engine at moderate speed and load. The exhaust line was specifically designed and customized to allow the insertion of the optical access upstream of the Diesel Oxidation Catalyst. During the experimental campaign, the engine was fuelled with commercial B5 fuel and a B30 v/v blend of RME and ultra low sulfur diesel, monitoring emissions upstream of the catalyst and exhaust gas temperature across the catalyst. Tests were performed at different engine operating conditions with particular attention to moderate speed and load.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Analysis on Diesel/n-Butanol Blends Operating in Partial Premixed Combustion in a Light Duty Diesel Engine

2012-04-16
2012-01-1127
This paper reports results of an experimental investigation performed on a commercial diesel engine supplied with fuel blends having low cetane number to attain a simultaneous reduction in NOx and smoke emissions. Blends of 20% and 40% of n-butanol in conventional diesel fuel have been tested, comparing engine performance and emissions to diesel ones. Taking advantage of the fuel blend higher resistance to auto ignition, it was possible to extend the range in which a premixed combustion is achieved. This allowed to match the goal of a significant reduction in emissions without important penalties in fuel consumption. The experimental activity was carried on a turbocharged, water cooled, 4 cylinder common rail DI diesel engine. The engine equipment included an exhaust gas recirculation system controlled by an external driver, a piezo-quartz pressure transducer to detect the in-cylinder pressure signal and a current probe to acquire the energizing current to the injector.
Technical Paper

Optical Investigation of the Effect on the Combustion Process of Butanol-Gasoline Blend in a PFI SI Boosted Engine

2011-09-11
2011-24-0057
The addition of alcohol to conventional hydrocarbon fuels for a spark-ignition engine can increase the fuel octane rating and the power for a given engine displacement and compression ratio. In this work, the influence of butanol addition to gasoline was investigated. The experiments were performed in an optical ported fuel injection single-cylinder SI engine with an external boosting device. The engine was equipped with the head of a commercial SI turbocharged engine having the same geometrical specifications (bore, stroke and compression ratio). The effect of a blend of 20% of n-butanol and 80% of gasoline (BU20) on in-cylinder combustion process was investigated by cycle-resolved visualization. The engine worked at low speed, medium boosting and wide open throttle. Changes in spark timing and fuel injection phasing were considered. Comparisons between the flame luminosity and the combustion pressure data were performed.
Technical Paper

Effects of Premixed Low Temperature Combustion of Fuel Blends with High Resistance to Auto-ignition on Performances and Emissions in a High Speed Diesel Engine

2011-09-11
2011-24-0049
This paper reports results of an experimental investigation to demonstrate the potential to employ blends of fuels having low cetane numbers that can provide high resistance to auto-ignition to reduce simultaneously NOx and smoke. Because of the higher resistance to auto-ignition, blends of diesel and gasoline at different volume fraction may provide more time for the mixture preparation by increasing the ignition delay. The result produces the potential to operate under partially premixed low temperature combustion with lower levels of EGR without excessive penalties on fuel efficiency. In addition to the diesel fuel, the tested blends were mixed by the baseline diesel with 20% and 40% of commercial EURO IV 98 octane gasoline by volume, denoted G20 and G40. The experimental activity has been performed on a turbocharged, water cooled, DI diesel engine, equipped with a common rail injection system.
Technical Paper

Optical Investigation of Premixed Low-Temperature Combustion of Lighter Fuel Blends in Compression Ignition Engines

2011-09-11
2011-24-0045
Optical imaging and UV-visible detection of in-cylinder combustion phenomena were made in a single cylinder optically accessed high swirl multi-jets compression ignition engine operating with two different fuels and two EGR levels. A commercial diesel fuel and a lighter fuel blend of diesel (80%) and gasoline (20%), named G20, were tested for two injection pressures (70 and 140 MPa) and injection timings in the range 11 CAD BTDC to 5 CAD ATDC. The blend G20 has a lower cetane number, is more volatile and more resistant to the auto-ignition than diesel yielding an effect on the ignition delay and on the combustion performance. Instantaneous fuel injection rate, in-cylinder combustion pressure, NOx and smoke engine out emissions were measured. Taking into account the particular configuration of the engine, the efficiency was estimated by determining the area under the working engine cycle.
Technical Paper

UV-Visible Imaging and Natural Emission Spectroscopy of Premixed Combustion in High Swirl Multi-Jets Compression Ignition Engine Fuelled with Diesel-Gasoline Blend

2012-09-10
2012-01-1723
One promising approach to reduce pollutants from compression ignition engines is the Partially-Premixed- Combustion in which engine out emissions can be reduced by promoting mixing of fuel and air prior to auto-ignition. A great interest for a premixed combustion regime is the investigation on fuels with different reactivity by blending diesel with lower cetane number and higher volatility fuels. In fact, fuels more resistant to auto-ignition give longer ignition delay that may enhance the fuel/air mixing prior to combustion. During the ignition delay period, the fuel spray atomizes into small droplets, vaporizes and mixes with air. As the piston moves towards TDC, as soon as the mixture temperature reaches the ignition point, instantaneously some pre-mixed amount of fuel and air ignites. The balance of fuel that does not burn in premixed combustion is consumed in the rate-controlled combustion phase, also known as diffusion combustion.
Technical Paper

Flame Contour Analysis through UV-Visible Imaging during Regular and Abnormal Combustion in a DISI Engine

2015-04-14
2015-01-0754
Crank angle resolved imaging in the UV-visible spectral range was used to investigate flame front characteristics during normal combustion, surface ignition and light knock conditions. ‘Line of sight’ measurements provided information on local wrinkling: the evaluation was based on a statistical approach, with multiple frames taken at the same crank angle during consecutive cycles. This allowed the results during normal combustion to be representative for the specific operational conditions and to a good degree independent from the effects of cyclic variation. Abnormal combustion on the other hand, was investigated on a cycle-to-cycle basis, given the stochastic nature of such phenomena. The experimental trials were performed at fixed engine speed on an optically accessible direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engine equipped with the cylinder head of a four cylinder 16-valves commercial power unit.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Alcohol Sprays from Multi-Hole Injector for DISI Engines through PIV Technique

2015-04-14
2015-01-0927
The use of alcohols as alternative to gasoline for fuelling spark-ignition (SI) engines is widespread. Growing interest is paid for n-butanol because of its characteristics that are similar to gasoline. If compared with other alcohols, n-butanol has higher energy content and miscibility with gasoline, lower hygroscope and corrosive properties making it an attractive solution for gasoline replacement. Even if several studies have been conduced to characterize the n-butanol combustion within Spark Ignition engines, few data are available on atomization and spray behavior. This paper reports the results of an experimental investigation to characterize the velocity vector field of two fuel-sprays injected by a 6-hole nozzle for Direct Injection Spark Ignition (DISI) engine. 2D Mie-scattering and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements were carried out in an optically accessible vessel at ambient temperature and pressure.
Technical Paper

Combustion Process Investigation in a DISI Engine Fuelled with n-butanol Through Digital Imaging and Chemiluminescence

2015-09-01
2015-01-1887
Direct-injection spark-ignition (DISI) engines have been adopted increasingly by the automotive industry in recent years due to their performance, reduced impact on the environment, and customer demand for advanced technology. However, detailed combustion processes in such engines are still not thoroughly analysed and understood. This work reports on the effects of different control parameters on the combustion process, such as fuel type, ignition timing and exhaust gas recirculation. Pure n-butanol and gasoline were used. All experiments were performed at 2000 rpm and 100 bar injection pressure in a transparent single-cylinder DISI engine equipped with the head of a commercial turbocharged engine with similar geometrical specifications (bore, stroke, compression ratio). Crank angle resolved 2D chemiluminescence in the UV range for OH radical and CO2 detection was performed with an ICCD camera and a high-speed CMOS camera was used for cycle resolved imaging.
Technical Paper

Effect of Control Parameters in an Optical DISI Engine with Gasoline-Butanol Fueling

2015-09-01
2015-01-1944
Effects of n-butanol on the combustion process in a direct injection spark ignition engine were investigated through flame visualization and spectroscopy. An optically accessible engine was equipped for the trials with a commercial cylinder head and wall guided injection system. Injection pressure (100 bar) and engine speed (2000 rpm) were fixed while injection timing and duration were changed to realise stoichiometric and lean fuelling in homogenous charge conditions. Specifically, UV-visible digital imaging was applied in order to study the flame front inception and propagation with particular interest in the early combustion stages. UV-visible natural emission spectroscopy was applied to investigate the formation and the evolution of the main chemical compounds characterizing the spark ignition and combustion processes. Detailed image processing allowed to correlate the morphology and the local flame front curvature with thermodynamic data.
Technical Paper

Plasma Assisted Ignition Effects on a DISI Engine Fueled with Gasoline and Butanol under Lean Conditions and with EGR

2016-04-05
2016-01-0710
Considering the generalized diversification of the energy mix, the use of alcohols as gasoline replacement is proposed as a viable option. Also, alternative control strategies for spark ignition engines (SI) such as lean operation and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) are used on an ever wider scale for improving fuel economy and reducing the environmental impact of automotive engines. In order to increase the stability of these operating points, alternative ignition systems are currently investigated. Within this context, the present work deals about the use of plasma assisted ignition (PAI) in a direct injection (DI) SI engine under lean conditions and cooled EGR, with gasoline and n-butanol fueling. The PAI system was tested in an optically accessible single-cylinder DISI engine equipped with the head of a commercial turbocharged power unit with similar geometrical specifications (bore, stroke, compression ratio).
Technical Paper

An Experimental Investigation of Alcohol/Diesel Fuel Blends on Combustion and Emissions in a Single-Cylinder Compression Ignition Engine

2016-04-05
2016-01-0738
UV-visible digital imaging and 2D chemiluminescence were applied on a single cylinder optically accessible compression ignition engine to investigate the effect of different alcohol/diesel fuel blends on the combustion mechanism. The growing request for greenhouse gas emission reduction imposes to consider the use of alternative fuels with the aim of both partially replacing the diesel fuel and reducing the fossil fuel consumption. To this purpose, the use of ABE (Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol) fermentation could represent an effective solution. Even if the different properties of alcohols compared to Diesel fuel limit the maximum blend concentration, low blend volume fractions can be used for improving combustion efficiency and exhaust emissions. The main objective of this study was to investigate the effects of the different fuel properties on the combustion evolution within the combustion chamber of a prototype optically accessible compression ignition engine.
Technical Paper

Multi-Wavelength Spectroscopic Investigations of the Post-Injection Strategy Effect on the Fuel Vapor within the Exhaust Line of a Light Duty Diesel Engine Fuelled with B5 and B30

2013-10-14
2013-01-2519
Optical diagnostic was applied to undiluted engine exhaust to supply a low cost and real time evaluation of the oil dilution tendency of selected fuels. Specifically, UV-visible-near IR extinction spectroscopy was applied in the exhaust line of a Euro 5 turbocharged, water cooled, DI diesel engine, equipped with a common rail injection system. The engine was fuelled with commercial B5 fuel and a B30 v/v blend of RME and ultra low sulfur diesel. The proposed experimental methodology allowed to identify the contribution to the multi-wavelength extinction of soot, fuel vapor, hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxide. Further, the evolution of each species for different post-injection interval settings was followed. On-line optical results were correlated with off-line liquid fuel absorption values. Moreover, spectroscopic measurements were linked to in-cylinder pressure related data and with HC and smoke exhaust emissions.
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