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Technical Paper

Mission-based Design Space Exploration for Powertrain Electrification of Series Plugin Hybrid Electric Delivery Truck

2018-04-03
2018-01-1027
Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) are essential for reducing fuel consumption and emissions. However, when analyzing different segments of the transportation industry, for example, public transportation or different sizes of delivery trucks and how the HEV are used, it is clear that one powertrain may not be optimal in all situations. Choosing a hybrid powertrain architecture and proper component sizes for different applications is an important task to find the optimal trade-off between fuel economy, drivability, and vehicle cost. However, exploring and evaluating all possible architectures and component sizes is a time-consuming task. A search algorithm, using Gaussian Processes, is proposed that simultaneously explores multiple architecture options, to identify the Pareto-optimal solutions.
Technical Paper

Plant Modeling and Software Verification for a Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle in the EcoCAR 2 Competition

2015-04-14
2015-01-1229
The EcoCAR 2: Plugging into the Future team at The Ohio State University is designing a Parallel-Series Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle capable of 44 miles of all-electric range. The vehicle features an 18.9-kWh lithium-ion battery pack with range extending operation in both series and parallel modes. This is made possible by a 1.8-L ethanol (E85) engine and 6-speed automated manual transmission. This vehicle is designed to drastically reduce fuel consumption, with a utility factor weighted fuel economy of 50 miles per gallon gasoline equivalent (mpgge), while meeting Tier II Bin 5 emissions standards. This paper details three years of modeling and simulation development for the OSU EcoCAR 2 vehicle. Included in this paper are the processes for developing simulation platform and model requirements, plant model and soft ECU development, test development and validation, automated regression testing, and controls and calibration optimization.
Technical Paper

Comparative study of different control strategies for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

2009-09-13
2009-24-0071
Plug-In Hybrid Vehicles (PHEVs) represent the middle point between Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) and Electric Vehicles (EVs), thus combining benefits of the two architectures. PHEVs can achieve very high fuel economy while preserving full functionality of hybrids - long driving range, easy refueling, lower emissions etc. These advantages come at an expense of added complexity in terms of available fuel. The PHEV battery is recharged both though regenerative braking and directly by the grid thus adding extra dimension to the control problem. Along with the minimization of the fuel consumption, the amount of electricity taken from the power grid should be also considered, therefore the electricity generation mix and price become additional parameters that should be included in the cost function.
Technical Paper

A Statistical Approach to Assess the Impact of Road Events on PHEV Performance using Real World Data

2011-04-12
2011-01-0875
Plug in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) have gained interest over last decade due to their increased fuel economy and ability to displace some petroleum fuel with electricity from power grid. Given the complexity of this vehicle powertrain, the energy management plays a key role in providing higher fuel economy. The energy management algorithm on PHEVs performs the same task as a hybrid vehicle energy management but it has more freedom in utilizing the battery energy due to the larger battery capacity and ability to be recharged from the power grid. The state of charge (SOC) profile of the battery during the entire driving trip determines the electric energy usage, thus determining overall fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

Fabrication of a Parallel-Series PHEV for the EcoCAR 2 Competition

2013-10-14
2013-01-2491
The EcoCAR 2: Plugging into the Future team at the Ohio State University is designing a Parallel-Series Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle capable of 50 miles of all-electric range. The vehicle features a 18.9-kWh lithium-ion battery pack with range extending operation in both series and parallel modes. This is made possible by a 1.8-L ethanol (E85) engine and 6-speed automated manual transmission. This vehicle is designed to drastically reduce fuel consumption, with a utility factor weighted fuel economy of 51 miles per gallon gasoline equivalent (mpgge), while meeting Tier II Bin 5 emissions standards. This report details the fabrication and control implementation process followed by the Ohio State team during Year 2 of the competition. The fabrication process includes finalizing designs based on identified requirements, building and assembling components, and performing extensive validation testing on the mechanical, electrical and control systems.
Technical Paper

Refinement of a Parallel-Series PHEV for Year 3 of the EcoCAR 2 Competition

2014-10-13
2014-01-2908
The EcoCAR 2 team at the Ohio State University has designed an extended-range electric vehicle capable of 44 miles all-electric range, which features a 18.9-kWh lithium-ion battery pack with range extending operation in both series and parallel modes made possible by a 1.8-L ethanol (E85) engine and a 6-speed automated manual transmission. This vehicle is designed to reduce fuel consumption, with a utility factor weighted fuel economy of 50 miles per gallon gasoline equivalent (mpgge), while meeting Tier II Bin 5 emissions standards. This report documents the team's refinement work on the vehicle during Year 3 of the competition, including vehicle improvements, control strategy calibration and dynamic vehicle testing, culminating in a 99% buy off vehicle that meets the goals set forth by the team. This effort was made possible through support from the U.S. Department of Energy, General Motors, The Ohio State University, and numerous competition and local sponsors.
Technical Paper

Island Concept EVT

2006-10-16
2006-01-3260
This paper presents an all-wheel-drive (AWD) hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) design approach for extreme off-road applications. The paper focuses on the powertrain design, modeling, simulation, and performance analysis. Since this project focuses on a military-type application, the powertrain is designed to enhance crew survivability and provide several different modes of limp-home operation by utilizing a new vehicle topology -herein referred to as the island topology. This topology consists of designing the vehicle such that the powertrain and other equipment and subsystems surround the crew compartment to provide a high level of protection against munitions and other harmful ordnance. Thus, in the event of an external shield penetration, the crew compartment remains protected by the surrounding equipment - which serves as a secondary shield.
Technical Paper

Experimental Characterization of Mixed-Mode HCCI/DI Combustion on a Common Rail Diesel Engine

2007-09-16
2007-24-0085
Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) is considered a very promising concept to achieve low NOx and Particulate Matter emissions in traditional spark ignition and Diesel engines. However, controlling the complex mechanisms which govern the combustion process and finding a proper method for the fuel introduction for Diesel HCCI engines have proven to still be a challenge. In addition, the well known IMEP limitations of HCCI combustion restrict the benefits on emissions to low engine load conditions. The current work attempts to extend the benefits of HCCI combustion to a broader range of engine operating conditions by blending the conventional Direct Injection (DI) with the external fuel atomization. A dual combustion system could potentially overcome the limits of low-load operations and allow for a gradual transition between the conventional DI mode at high load and the HCCI external mixture formation at idle and low load.
Journal Article

Adaptive Energy Management Strategy Calibration in PHEVs Based on a Sensitivity Study

2013-09-08
2013-24-0074
This paper presents a sensitivity analysis-based study aimed at robustly calibrating the parameters of an adaptive energy management strategy designed for a Plugin Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV). The supervisory control is developed from the Pontryagin's Minimum Principle (PMP) approach and applied to a model of a GM Chevrolet Volt vehicle. The proposed controller aims at minimizing the fuel consumption of the vehicle over a given driving mission, by achieving a blended discharge strategy over the entire cycle. The calibration study is conducted over a wide set of driving conditions and it generates a look-up table and two constant values for the three controller parameters to be used in the in-vehicle implementation. Finally, the calibrated adaptive control strategy is validated against real driving cycles showing the effectiveness of the calibration approach.
Journal Article

Design of a Parallel-Series PHEV for the EcoCAR 2 Competition

2012-09-10
2012-01-1762
The EcoCAR 2: Plugging into the Future team at the Ohio State University is designing a Parallel-Series Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle capable of 50 miles of all-electric range. The vehicle features a 18.9-kWh lithium-ion battery pack with range extending operation in both series and parallel modes made possible by a 1.8-L ethanol (E85) engine and 6-speed automated manual transmission. This vehicle is designed to drastically reduce fuel consumption, with a utility factor weighted fuel economy of 75 miles per gallon gasoline equivalent (mpgge), while meeting Tier II Bin 5 emissions standards. This report details the rigorous design process followed by the Ohio State team during Year 1 of the competition. The design process includes identifying the team customer's needs and wants, selecting an overall vehicle architecture and completing detailed design work on the mechanical, electrical and control systems. This effort was made possible through support from the U.S.
Journal Article

Design and Validation of a Control-Oriented Model of a Diesel Engine with Two-Stage Turbocharger

2009-09-13
2009-24-0122
Two-stage turbochargers are a recent solution to improve engine performance. The large flexibility of these systems, able to operate in different modes, can determine a reduction of the turbo-lag phenomenon and improve the engine tuning. However, the presence of two turbochargers that can be in part operated independently requires effort in terms of analysis and optimization to maximize the benefits of this technology. In addition, the design and calibration of the control system is particularly complex. The transitioning between single stage and two-stage operations poses further control issues. In this scenario a model-based approach could be a convenient and effective solution to investigate optimization, calibration and control issues, provided the developed models retain high accuracy, limited calibration effort and the ability to run in real time.
Technical Paper

Reducing Fuel Consumption by Using Information from Connected and Automated Vehicle Modules to Optimize Propulsion System Control

2019-04-02
2019-01-1213
As regulatory targets for fuel economy continue to tighten globally, the transportation industry is pursuing a variety of approaches to improve vehicle fuel efficiency, including improvements in the internal combustion engine and an accelerating shift to electrification. A key enabler to maximizing the benefit from these new powertrain technologies is proper systems integration work --- developing optimized controls for the propulsion system as a whole. The next step in the evolution of improving the propulsion management system is to make use of available information not typically associated with the powertrain. Advanced driver assistance systems, vehicle connectivity systems and cloud applications can provide information to a propulsion domain controller that enables Intelligent Driving, which shifts from instantaneous optimization of fuel consumption, to optimization over a route.
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