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Technical Paper

Transmission Side Cover Design Optimization for NVH Part 2: Geometric Optimization Studies

The design of Front Wheel Drive transmission side covers is primarily driven by packaging concerns, and secondarily by structural durability requirements. While the side cover design is a very important element in the NVH performance of a transaxle, there has historically been little consideration of this concern at the design stage. The typical approach to NVH considerations on a side cover is to start with the initial prototype hardware and add any stiffening features in order to reduce the cover vibration or radiated sound. A preferred approach would be to factor the NVH considerations into the initial design. Through consideration of the packaging constraints and a goal of maximizing the fundamental natural frequency of the side cover, it is possible to select from various alternative geometries the one which best meets these objectives.
Technical Paper

Geartrain Noise Optimization in an Electrical Drive Unit

Alternative powertrains, in particular electric and plug-in hybrids, create a wide range of unique and challenging NVH (noise, vibration & harshness) issues in today's automotive industry. Among the emerging engineering challenges from these powertrains, their acoustic performances become more complicated, partially due to reduced ambient masking noise level and light weight structure. In addition, the move away from conventional displacement engines to electrical drive units (EDU) has created a new array of NVH concerns and dynamics, which are relatively unknown as compared to the aforementioned traditional setups. In this paper, an NVH optimization study will be presented, focusing on four distinct factors in electric drive unit gear mesh source generation and radiation: EDU housing and bearing dynamics, gear geometry, EDU shafting torsional dynamics, and EDU housing structure. The study involves intensive FEA modeling/analyses jointly with physical validation tests.
Technical Paper

Gear Noise Reduction through Transmission Error Control and Gear Blank Dynamic Tuning

Gear whine can be reduced through a combination of gear parameter selection and manufacturing process design directed at reducing the effective transmission error. The process of gear selection and profile modification design is greatly facilitated through the use of simulation tools to evaluate the details of the tooth contact analysis through the roll angle, including the effect of gear tooth, gear blank and shaft deflections under load. The simulation of transmission error for a range of gear designs under consideration was shown to provide a 3-5 dB range in transmission error. Use of these tools enables the designer to achieve these lower noise limits. An equally important concern is the dynamic mesh stiffness and transmissibility of force from the mesh to the bearings. Design parameters which affect these issues will determine the sensitivity of a transmission to a given level of transmission error.
Journal Article

NVH Development of Aluminum Axles

This paper discusses approaches to properly design aluminum axles for optimized NVH characteristics. By effectively using well established and validated FEA and other CAE tools, key factors that are particularly associated with aluminum axles are analyzed and discussed. These key factors include carrier geometry optimization, bearing optimization, gear design and development, and driveline system dynamics design and integration. Examples are provided to illustrate the level of contribution from each main factor as well as their design space and limitations. Results show that an aluminum axle can be properly engineered to achieve robust NVH performances in terms of operating temperature and axle loads.
Technical Paper

Balancing Competing Design Imperatives to Achieve Overall Driveline NVH Performance Objectives

Today's emerging 4-wheel-drive and all-wheel-drive vehicle architectures have presented new challenges to engineers in achieving low driveline system noise. In the meantime there's also a constant pressure from increasingly stringent noise level requirements. A driveline system's NVH (noise, vibration and harshness) performance is controlled by various noise sources and mechanisms. The common noise issues include the axle gear whine, driveline imbalance/run-out, 2nd order kinematics, engine torque fluctuation, engine idle shake etc. Unfortunately various design alternatives may improve some NVH performance attributes while degrading others. It is important to balance the requirements for these noise sources to achieve an optimized driveline system NVH. However, very little literature is found on this topic. In this paper, discussions on methodologies in balancing these different driveline NVH requirements are presented.