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Technical Paper

An Experimental Study on Static and Fatigue Strengths of Resistance Spot Welds with Stack-up of Advanced High Strength Steels and Adhesive

This paper describes static and fatigue behavior of resistance spot welds with the stack-up of conventional mild and advanced high strength steels, with and without adhesive, based on a set of lap shear and coach peel coupon tests. The coupons were fabricated following specified spot welding and adhesive schedules. The effects of similar and dissimilar steel grade sheet combinations in the joint configuration have been taken into account. Tensile strength of the steels used for the coupons, both as-received and after baked, and cross-section microstructure photographs are included. The spot weld SN relations between this study and the study by Auto/Steel Partnership are compared and discussed.
Technical Paper

Failure Modeling of Adhesive Bonded Joints with Cohesive Elements

Advanced high strength steels (AHSS) have been extensively used in the automotive industry for vehicle weight reduction. Although AHSS show better parent metal fatigue performance, the influence of material strength on spot weld fatigue is insignificant. To overcome this drawback, structural adhesive can been used along with spot weld to form weld-bond joints. These joints significantly improve spot weld fatigue performance and provide high joint stiffness enabling down-gauge of AHSS structures. However, modeling the adhesive joints using finite element methods is a challenge due to the nonlinear behavior of the material. In this study, the formulation of cohesive element based on the traction-separation constitutive law was applied to predict the initiation and propagation of the failure mode in the adhesively bonded joints for lap shear and coach peel specimens subjected to quasi-static loadings. The predicted load versus displacement relations correlated well with the test results.
Technical Paper

Effects of AHSS Sheared Edge Conditions on Crash Energy Absorption in Component Bend Test

Edge fracture of advanced high strength steels (AHSS) can occur in both the stamping process and the crash event. Fracture due to poor sheared edge conditions in the stamping process was reduced with a recently developed optimal shearing process for AHSS. Currently, the improvement in the energy absorption due to the improved edge condition during crashes performed under different loading conditions had not been closely verified. The purpose of this study is to design and build a miniature component of AHSS and a three-point bending test for investigating the influence of various conditions of the sheared edge on the energy absorption in crashes. AHSS including DP600, TRIP780, DP980 and DP1180 were selected in the study. A small channel component was developed and fabricated using DP980 to simulate key features of the B-pillar. The exposed non-constrained, as-sheared edge was subject to stretch bending forces in three-dimensional space during the three-point bending test.
Technical Paper

Modeling Energy Absorption and Deformation of Multicorner Columns in Lateral Bending

The frame rail has an impact on the crash performance of body-on-frame (BOF) and uni-body vehicles. Recent developments in materials and forming technology have prompted research into improving the energy absorption and deformation mode of the frame rail design. It is worthwhile from a timing and cost standpoint to predict the behavior of the front rail in a crash situation through finite element techniques. This study focuses on improving the correlation of the frame component Finite Element model to physical test data through sensitivity analysis. The first part of the study concentrated on predicting and improving the performance of the front rail in a frontal crash [1]. However, frame rails in an offset crash or side crash undergo a large amount of bending. This paper discusses appropriate modeling and testing procedures for front rails in a bending situation.
Technical Paper

Influence of AHSS Part Geometric Features on Crash Behavior

Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS) are replacing conventional high strength low-alloyed steels (HSLA) in crash sensitive body in white (BIW) applications. Along with innovative product design, they offer superior crash energy management and vehicle weight reduction potential. However, Controlling springback and dimensional accuracy is one of the major concerns in manufacturing AHSS parts. One of the most effective springback control techniques is to design a part with added geometric features such as side stiffening beads, state beads, top hat beads, and embossments, etc. at the product design stage. On the other hand, product design communities tend to believe that the above listed features may result in premature crash initiation in the part. This paper uses an innovative and experimentally verified finite element method (FEM) for crash sensitive component design and optimization.
Technical Paper

Mass Efficient Cross-Sections Using Dual Phase Steels For Axial and Bending Crushes

Because of their excellent crash energy absorption capacity, dual phase (DP) steels are gradually replacing conventional High Strength Low Alloy (HSLA) steels for critical crash components in order to meet the more stringent vehicle crash safety regulations. To achieve optimal axial and bending crush performance using DP steels for crash components designed for crash energy absorption and/or intrusion resistance applications, the cross sections need to be optimized. Correlated crush simulation models were employed for the cross-section study. The models were developed using non-linear finite element code LS-DYNA and correlated to dynamic and quasi-static axial and bending crush tests on hexagonal and octagonal cross-sections made of DP590 steel. Several design concepts were proposed, the axial and bending crush performance in DP780 and DP980 were compared, and the potential mass savings were discussed.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of Effects of Frame Trigger Hole Location on Crash Behavior

The front rail plays a very important role in vehicle crash. Trigger holes are commonly used to control frame crush mode due to their simple manufacturing process and flexibility for late changes in the product development phase. Therefore, a study, including CAE and testing, was conducted on a production front rail to understand the effects of trigger hole shape, size and orientation. The trigger hole location in the front rail also affects crash performance. Therefore, the effect of trigger hole location on front rail crash behavior was studied, and understanding these effects is the main objective of this study. A tapered front rail produced from 1.7 mm thick DP600 steel was used for the trigger hole location investigation. Front rails with different trigger spacing and sizes were tested using VIA sled test facility and the crash progress was simulated using a commercial code RADIOSS. The strain rate, welding and forming effects were incorporated in the front rail modeling.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Studies of Crash Trigger Sensitivity in Frontal Impact

Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS) along with innovative design and manufacturing processes are effective ways to improve crash energy management. Crash trigger hole is another technology which can been used on front rails for controlling crash buckling mode, avoiding crash mode instability and minimizing variations in crash mode due to imperfections in materials, part geometry, manufacturing, and assembly processes etc. In this study, prototyped crash columns with different trigger hole shapes, sizes and locations were physically tested in frontal crash impact tests. A corresponding crash computer simulation model was then created to perform the correlation study. The testing data, such as crash force-displacement curves and dynamic crash modes, were used to verify the FEA crash model and to study the trigger sensitivity and effects on front rail crash performance.
Journal Article

Fatigue Based Lightweight Optimization of a Pickup Cargo Box with Advanced High Strength Steels

Advanced high strength steels (AHSS) offer a good balance of strength, durability, crash energy absorption and formability. Applications of AHSS for lightweight designs of automotive structures are accelerating in recent years to meet the tough new CAFE standard for vehicle fuel economy by 2025. At the same time, the new generation pickup cargo box is to be designed for a dramatic increase in payload. Upgrading the box material from conventional mild steels to AHSS is necessary to meet the conflicting requirements of vehicle light weighting and higher payload. In this paper, typical AHSS grades such as DP590 and DP780 were applied to selected components of the pickup cargo box for weight reduction while meeting the design targets for fatigue, strength and local stiffness.
Journal Article

Optimized AHSS Structures for Vehicle Side Impact

Advanced high strength steels (AHSS) have been widely accepted as a material of choice in the automotive industry to balance overall vehicle weight and stringent vehicle crash test performance targets. Combined with efficient use of geometry and load paths through shape and topology optimization, AHSS has enabled vehicle manufacturers to obtain the highest possible ratings in safety evaluations by the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). In this study, vehicle CAE side impact models were used to evaluate three side impact crash test conditions (IIHS side impact, NHTSA LINCAP and FMVSS 214 side pole) and the IIHS roof strength test condition and to identify several key components affecting the side impact test performance. HyperStudy® optimization software and LS-DYNA® nonlinear finite element software were utilized for shape and gauge optimization.
Journal Article

Fracture Modeling of AHSS in Component Crush Tests

Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS) have been implemented in the automotive industry to balance the requirements for vehicle crash safety, emissions, and fuel economy. With lower ductility compared to conventional steels, the fracture behavior of AHSS components has to be considered in vehicle crash simulations to achieve a reliable crashworthiness prediction. Without considering the fracture behavior, component fracture cannot be predicted and subsequently the crash energy absorbed by the fractured component can be over-estimated. In full vehicle simulations, failure to predict component fracture sometimes leads to less predicted intrusion. In this paper, the feasibility of using computer simulations in predicting fracture during crash deformation is studied.
Journal Article

Validation of GISSMO Model for Fracture Prediction of a Third-Generation Advanced High-Strength Steel

Advanced high-strength steels (AHSS), due to their significantly higher strength than the conventional high-strength steels, are increasingly used in the automotive industry to meet future safety and fuel economy requirements. Unlike conventional steels, the properties of AHSS can vary significantly due to the different steelmaking processes and their fracture behaviors should be characterized. In crash analysis, a fracture model is often integrated in the simulations to predict fracture during crash events. In this article, crash simulations including a fracture criterion are conducted for a third-generation AHSS, that is, 980GEN3. A generalized incremental stress state dependent damage model (GISSMO) in LS-DYNA is employed to evaluate the fracture predictability in the crash simulations.
Journal Article

Optimized Design Solutions for Roof Strength Using Advanced High Strength Steels

In August 2005, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) proposed to increase the roof strength requirement under Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) 216 from 1.5 to 2.5 times unloaded vehicle weight (UVW). To meet the new requirement with a minimum impact on vehicle weight and cost, the automotive community is working actively to develop improved roof architectures using advanced high strength steels (AHSS) and other lightweight materials such as structural foam. The objective of this study is to develop an optimized steel-only solution with low material and part-manufacturing costs. Since the new regulation will present a particular challenge to the roof architectures of large vans, pickup trucks and SUVs due to their large mass and size, a validated roof crush model on a B-Pillar-less light truck is utilized in this study.
Journal Article

Axial Crash Testing and Finite Element Modeling of A 12-Sided Steel Component

To improve the energy absorption capacity of front-end structures during a vehicle crash, a novel 12-sided cross-section was developed and tested. Computer-aided engineering (CAE) studies showed superior axial crash performance of the 12-sided component over more conventional cross-sections. When produced from advanced high strength steels (AHSS), the 12-sided cross-section offers opportunities for significant mass-savings for crash energy absorbing components such as front or rear rails and crush tips. In this study, physical crash tests and CAE modeling were conducted on tapered 12-sided samples fabricated from AHSS. The effects of crash trigger holes, different steel grades and bake hardening on crash behavior were examined. Crash sensitivity was also studied by using two different part fabrication methods and two crash test methods. The 12-sided components showed regular folding mode and excellent energy absorption capacity in axial crash tests.