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Journal Article

Experimental Investigation of the Performance of a Laminate Evaporator with HFO-1234yf as the Working Fluid

2011-04-12
2011-01-1170
Tests were conducted with a laminate evaporator for an automotive application. The tests were conducted with HFO-1234yf as the working fluid on an AC system bench. A laminate evaporator from MY 2008 medium sized sedan was used for this investigation. Tests were first conducted with R-134a and were then repeated by maintaining each test condition by changing the working fluid from R-134a to HFO-1234yf. Charge determination tests were also conducted with the new refrigerant. The refrigerant was used as “drop-in” refrigerant in the existing system. All original OEM parts were used with the alternate refrigerant. Same TXV set-point and lubricant type and quantity was used with HFO-1234yf. The new refrigerant has advantages due to the refrigerant thermodynamic properties that helps reduce the pressure ratio. Detailed test results have been presented in this paper.
Journal Article

Experimental Measurements of Condensation Heat Transfer Coefficients for Refrigerant HFO-1234yf

2013-04-08
2013-01-1493
Experimental tests were conducted on a parallel flow condenser with HFO-1234yf as the working fluid on an AC system bench to determine average and local heat transfer coefficients during condensation of HFO-1234yf for mass flow rates that are typically encountered from idle to highway speeds (800 to 3000 rpms). A condenser from MY 2008 medium-sized sedan was used for this investigation. All original OEM parts were used with the alternate refrigerant. Same TXV set-point was used with HFO-1234yf. The magnitude of the measured heat transfer coefficient for condensation was found to be 8~12% lower in comparison to HFC-134a. The magnitudes of the pressure drop during condensation were of the same magnitude as HFC-134a system. The information from this investigation can be used to in the design of condensers for mobile air conditioning systems with HFO-1234yf as the working fluid.
Technical Paper

Experimental Measurements of Stored Energy in Vehicle's Cockpit Module at High Ambient and Solar Load Conditions

2014-04-01
2014-01-0705
Experimental studies have been conducted to determine the energy stored in vehicle's Cockpit Module (CPM) at high ambient and at high solar heat loads for a MY2012 production vehicle. Detailed analysis has been done in this paper to show the influence of energy stored in various components (e.g., Instrument panel, HVAC system, heat exchanger, wire harness, etc.) contained within the CPM unit. Experiments were conducted to show the amount of energy stored at high ambient and solar conditions.
Technical Paper

Enhancing AC System Performance with a Suction Line Heat Exchanger with Refrigerant HFO-1234yf

2011-04-12
2011-01-0133
An experimental investigation has been carried out to quantify the performance enhancements with a suction line heat exchanger (SLHX) in an AC system with HFO-1234yf as the working fluid. An off-the-shelf double pipe cross fluted SLHX is used for this investigation. System level bench tests are conducted with an AC system from a 2009 MY mid-sized sedan. The test results shows that the AC system performance with HFO-1234yf can be improve up to 8~9% in comparison to a baseline system without a SLHX.
Technical Paper

Two-Phase Flow Boiling Heat Transfer Coefficients and Pressure Gradients for HFO-1234yf

2012-04-16
2012-01-1047
Tests were conducted with a laminate evaporator for an automotive application. The tests were conducted with HFO-1234yf as the working fluid on an AC system bench. A laminate evaporator from MY 2008 medium-sized sedan was used for this investigation. Flow boiling heat transfer coefficients were experimentally determined for HFO-1234yf for this laminate evaporator. Heat transfer coefficients have also been computed from standard correlations available from the open literature. The experimentally obtained heat transfer coefficients are within ±20% of the simulated data based on standard correlation (Kandlikar, 1990). Pressure gradients for these two fluids calculated from Lockhart and Martinelli (1949) correlation shows that the pressure gradients for HFO-1234yf are lower by 15%. Detailed results have been presented in this paper.
Technical Paper

Development of an Innovative Energy Efficient Compact Cooling System “SLIM”

2012-04-16
2012-01-1201
To improve fuel consumption, hybrid system, turbo-charged engine, and clean diesel engine vehicles have been developed. These new systems require additional heat exchangers which reduces air flow rate within the heat exchangers of an engine cooling module. Consequently, power of cooling fan is increased. CalsonicKansei (CK) has developed a new cooling module “SLIM” (Single Layer Integrated cooling Module). This consists of a current condenser which is air-cooled and a new water-cooled condenser. This water cooled condenser is specifically designed to bring superheated refrigerant vapor to saturated conditions. The water-cooled condenser is located inside of the sub-radiator tank. The operation of the sub-radiator is to provide cooling to charge air cooler (CAC) and to water-cooled condenser. The switch of the operation is done automatically without any valve and any actuator.
Technical Paper

Experimental Measurements of Stored Energy in Vehicle's Cockpit Module at Cold Temperatures

2015-04-14
2015-01-0365
Experimental studies have been conducted to determine the energy stored in vehicle's Cockpit Module (CPM) at cold soaking conditions for a MY2012 production vehicle. Detailed analysis has been done in this paper to show the influence of energy stored in various components (e.g., Instrument panel, HVAC system, heat exchanger, wire harness, etc.) contained within the CPM unit. Experiments conducted show that the instrument panel stores the maximum amount of energy at a given temperature.
Journal Article

Experimental Investigation with Cross Fluted Double-Pipe Suction Line Heat Exchanger to Enhance AC System Performance

2009-04-20
2009-01-0970
An experimental investigation has been carried out to quantify the performance enhancements with a suction line heat exchanger (SLHX) in an AC system. An off-the shelf double pipe cross fluted SLHX is used for this investigation. System level bench tests are conducted with an AC system from a 2008 MY mid-sized sedan. The cabin interior condition is held constant at 25°C and 50% RH. The dry bulb temperature for the engine compartment is varied from 25 to 45°C. The compressor speed is varied from 800 to 3000 rpm and the air velocity over the condenser is varied from 2 to 10 m/s. Based on the tests conducted on the AC system without and with SLHX, system performance (COP) has been improved by 7%. Additional tests have been planned with modified SLHX.
Technical Paper

Performance of Serpentine Heat Exchangers

1998-02-23
980057
In an earlier investigation (Mathur, 1997a; 1997b), the author had developed a simulation program for predicting the thermal and hydrodynamic performance of the automotive heat exchangers. The performance of finned tube condenser and evaporator was simulated and compared with the experimentally obtained data. The simulated performance for both condenser and evaporator was in good agreement with the experimental data. In this paper, the performance of serpentine condenser and evaporator is simulated by using the computer program developed earlier by the author. None of the original correlations for predicting the heat transfer, pressure drop, void fraction are changed. However, the computational methodology had to be changed as the flow in a serpentine heat exchanger is different than in finned tube heat exchangers. The working fluid used in this investigation is R-134a. The simulated performance is compared with the experimentally obtained data on the calorimeter tests.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Simulation of Thermal and Hydrodynamic Performance of Heat Exchangers for Automotive Applications - Part II: Evaporators

1997-02-24
970830
A computer program has been developed to optimize the performance of finned tube evaporators. The developed program is used to predict the thermal and hydrodynamic performance of finned tube evaporators. The model is based on a steady-state finite difference model. The correlations for predicting the heat transfer and pressure drop are used from the literature. Experimental data is used to validate the developed model for a finned tube evaporator with R-12 as the working fluid. The simulated performance for heat transfer rate is within ±8 %; and refrigerant pressure drop is within ±10 % of the experimental data. The simulated data shows that 66 % of the heat transfer area is occupied by flow boiling; 23 % by the dryout region; and remaining 11 % is controlled by single-phase vapor flow. Work is continuing on predicting the performance of serpentine and laminate type evaporators with R-134a as the working fluid.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation to Determine Accumulation of Lubrication Oil in a Single Tank Evaporator with Tank at the Top at Different Compressor Operating Speeds

2004-03-08
2004-01-0213
A number of experiments were conducted to determine oil accumulation rates for a single tank laminate evaporator with the tank at the top. The tank at the top results in a U-shaped evaporator plate design at the bottom where oil can collect under extreme operating conditions. A typical 4 pass laminate evaporator was used for testing. R-134a with an oil circulation ratio of 3% was used for this study. The AC system was run for extended periods (2∼4 hours) at different compressor speeds to simulate the variation of load on the evaporator. Evaporator samples were taken off from the test stand and weighed after recovering refrigerant. The evaporators were designed such that it could be isolated by shutting off valves at the inlet and the outlet connections.
Technical Paper

Simulating Performance of a Parallel Flow Condenser Using Hydrocarbons as the Working Fluids

2001-05-14
2001-01-1744
Performance of a parallel flow condenser is simulated by using hydrocarbons as the alternative refrigerants. The performance of the condenser is simulated with Propane (R-290), Isobutane (R-600a), and 50/50 mixture (by weight) of Propane and Isobutane. The performance is compared to a system with R-134a as the working fluid. For a given condenser heat rejection capacity, the refrigerant mass flow rates for hydrocarbon refrigerants are significantly lower than R-134a. However, the heat transfer coefficients are comparable in magnitudes to the base case (R-134a) which results in heat transfer rates that are very close to that of the base case. Hence, the simulated rate of heat transfer for hydrocarbon refrigerants is very close (within ±3%) to that of R-134a system. The pressure drop for hydrocarbon refrigerants are significantly lower in comparison to R-134a. The simulated thermal performance has been compared with the experimental test data obtained from the system bench.
Technical Paper

Predicting and Optimizing Thermal and Hydrodynamic Performance of Parallel Flow Condensers

1999-03-01
1999-01-0236
The performance of a parallel flow condenser of a domestic vehicle was simulated by using the computer program developed earlier by the author (Mathur, 1997). None of the original correlations for predicting heat transfer, pressure drop, void fraction were changed. The working fluid used in this investigation was R-134a. The simulated performance was compared with the experimentally obtained data from the calorimeter tests. The simulated thermal and hydrodynamic performance was within ±6% of the experimental data. Detailed performance data has been presented in this paper. The performance of the same condenser was optimized by varying the number of tubes in a given pass by fixing all other variables, e.g., tube and fin pitch; tube geometry; height, length, and depth of the condenser; number of passes; and location of the inlet and outlet connections.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Thermal and Hydrodynamic Performance of Laminate Evaporators

2000-03-06
2000-01-0573
The thermal and hydrodynamic performance of laminate (plate type) evaporators is simulated by using the computer program developed earlier by the author (Mathur, 1997). The correlations for predicting heat transfer, pressure drop, void fraction are used from the literature. The working fluid used in this investigation is R-134a. The simulated performance is compared with the experimentally obtained data from the calorimeter tests. The simulated thermal and hydrodynamic performance is within ″9% of the experimental data. Detailed performance data has been presented in this paper.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Simulation of Thermal and Hydrodynamic Performance of Heat Exchangers for Automotive Applications - Part I: Condensers

1997-02-24
970829
A computer program has been developed to optimize the performance of finned tube condensers. The developed program is used to predict the thermal and hydrodynamic performance of finned tube condensers. The model is based on a steady-state finite difference model. The correlations for predicting the heat transfer and pressure drop are used from the literature. Experimental test data is used to validate the developed model for a finned tube condenser with R-134a as the working fluid. The simulated performance for the condenser heat transfer is within ±7%; and refrigerant pressure drop is within 10% of the experimental data. The simulated data for the condenser coil shows that 16% of the total heat transfer area is occupied by single-phase vapor flow where the superheated vapor are cooled to the saturated conditions; 72% by condensation; and the remaining 12% is controlled by the single-phase liquid flow which results in subcooling.
Technical Paper

Development of a Correlation for Predicting Condensation Heat Transfer Coefficients for Refrigerant HFO-1234yf

2019-04-02
2019-01-0150
Author has developed a correlation to predict condensation heat transfer coefficients for refrigerant condensation in an automotive parallel flow condenser. This is a first correlation in the open literature for HFO-1234yf to predict heat transfer coefficients for an automotive condenser. The system refrigerant mass flowrate was varied from 180 to 475 kg/hr; inlet refrigerant qualities from 1 to exit qualities of 0. The tests were conducted at an average condenser saturation temperature of 50°C and the oil circulation ratio was maintained at 3%.
Technical Paper

Correlation for Predicting Two-Phase Flow Boiling Heat Transfer Coefficients for Refrigerant HFO-1234yf

2018-04-03
2018-01-0055
Author has developed a correlation to predict flow boiling heat transfer coefficients for refrigerant evaporating in an automotive evaporator. This is a first correlation in the open literature for HFO-1234yf to predict heat transfer coefficients for automotive evaporator. The refrigerant mass flux was varied from 500 to 1200 kg/m2.s; heat flux was varied from 2 to 6.2 kW/m2; inlet refrigerant qualities from 0 to 40% and exit qualities of about 95%. The tests were conduct at 4.4 °C and the oil circulation ratio was maintained at 3%. Experimental data has been used with MINITAB software, Version 16.1.0 to develop this correlation. Multivariate nonlinear regression analysis has been done to develop this correlation. Experimental data along with refrigerant properties, hydraulic diameter that affects Reynolds number, Prandtl number and other appropriate variables have been used to develop this correlation. Details of the newly developed correlation have been presented in the paper.
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